Appeals court ruling in Tom Brady DeflateGate suspension case

The U.S. Court of Appeals reinstated the four-game suspension for New England Patriots quarterback Tom Brady for his actions involving under-inflated footballs in the 2015 AFC championship game.

15E!2801E+-(L),E+-15E!2805E+-(CON)
NationalE+-FootballE+-LeagueE+-ManagementE+-CouncilE+-etE+-al.E+-v.E+-NationalE+-FootballE+-LeagueE+-PlayersE+-AssociationE+-etE+-al.

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In the

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United States Court of Appeals

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for the Second Circuit

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________

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AugustE+-Term,E+-2015

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No.E+-15E!2801E+-(L),E+-No.E+-15E!2805E+-(CON)

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NATIONALE+-FOOTBALLE+-LEAGUEE+-MANAGEMENTE+-COUNCIL,
PlaintiffE!CounterE!DefendantE!Appellant,

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and

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NATIONALE+-FOOTBALLE+-LEAGUE,
DefendantE!Appellant,

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v.

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NATIONALE+-FOOTBALLE+-LEAGUEE+-PLAYERSE+-ASSOCIATION,E+-onE+-itsE+-own
behalfE+-andE+-onE+-behalfE+-ofE+-TomE+-Brady,
DefendantE!CounterE!ClaimantE!Appellee,

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and

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TOME+-BRADY,
CounterE!ClaimantE!Appellee.*
________

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AppealE+-fromE+-theE+-UnitedE+-StatesE+-DistrictE+-Court
forE+-theE+-SouthernE+-DistrictE+-ofE+-NewE+-York.
Nos.E+-15E!5916,E+-15E!1982E+-(RMB)E+-EdegE+-RichardE+-M.E+-Berman,E+-Judge.
________

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*

E+-TheE+-ClerkE+-ofE+-CourtE+-isE+-directedE+-toE+-amendE+-theE+-captionE+-asE+-setE+-forthE+-above.

Nos.E+-15E!2801E+-(L),E+-15E!2805E+-(CON)

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Argued:E+-MarchE+-3,E+-2016
Decided:E+-AprilE+-25,E+-2016
________
Before:E+-KATZMANN,E+-ChiefE+-Judge,E+-PARKERE+-andE+-CHIN,E+-CircuitE+-Judges.
________
AppealE+-fromE+-aE+-judgmentE+-ofE+-theE+-UnitedE+-StatesE+-DistrictE+-CourtE+-for
theE+- SouthernE+- DistrictE+- ofE+- NewE+- YorkE+- (RichardE+- M.E+- Berman,E+- Judge).E+-
FollowingE+-anE+-investigation,E+-theE+-NationalE+-FootballE+-LeagueE+-imposedE+-a
fourE!gameE+- suspensionE+- onE+- NewE+- EnglandE+- PatriotsE+- quarterbackE+- Tom
Brady.E+-E+-TheE+-suspensionE+-wasE+-basedE+-onE+-aE+-findingE+-thatE+-heE+-participated
inE+- aE+- schemeE+- toE+- deflateE+- footballsE+- usedE+- duringE+- theE+- 2015E+- American
FootballE+- ConferenceE+- ChampionshipE+- GameE+- toE+- aE+- pressureE+- belowE+- the
permissibleE+- range.E+- E+- BradyE+- requestedE+- arbitrationE+- andE+- League
CommissionerE+- RogerE+- Goodell,E+- servingE+- asE+- arbitrator,E+- enteredE+- an
awardE+-confirmingE+-theE+-discipline.E+-E+-TheE+-partiesE+-soughtE+-judicialE+-review
andE+- theE+- districtE+- courtE+- vacatedE+- theE+- awardE+- basedE+- uponE+- itsE+- findingE+- of
fundamentalE+- unfairnessE+- andE+- lackE+- ofE+- notice.E+- E+- TheE+- LeagueE+- has
appealed.
WeE+- holdE+- thatE+- theE+- CommissionerE+- properlyE+- exercisedE+- hisE+- broad
discretionE+- underE+- theE+- collectiveE+- bargainingE+- agreementE+- andE+- thatE+- his
proceduralE+- rulingsE+- wereE+- properlyE+- groundedE+- inE+- thatE+- agreementE+- and
didE+- notE+- depriveE+- BradyE+- ofE+- fundamentalE+- fairness.E+- E+- Accordingly,E+- we
REVERSEE+- theE+- judgmentE+- ofE+- theE+- districtE+- courtE+- andE+- REMANDE+- with
instructionsE+-toE+-confirmE+-theE+-award.
ChiefE+-JudgeE+-KatzmannE+-dissentsE+-inE+-aE+-separateE+-opinion.
________
PAULE+- D.E+- CLEMENTE+- (ErinE+- E.E+- Murphy,E+- MichaelE+- H.
McGinley,E+- onE+- theE+- brief),E+- BancroftE+- PLLC,
Washington,E+-D.C.;E+-DanielE+-L.E+-Nash,E+-PratikE+-A.E+-Shah,
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Nos.E+-15E!2801E+-(L),E+-15E!2805E+-(CON)

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StaceyE+-R.E+-Eisenstein,E+-GregoryE+-W.E+-KnoppE+-&E+-James
E.E+-Tysse,E+-AkinE+-GumpE+-StraussE+-HauerE+-&E+-FeldE+-LLP,
Washington,E+-D.C.,E+-onE+-theE+-brief,E+-forE+-PlaintiffE!CounterE!
DefendantE!AppellantE+-andE+-DefendantE!Appellant.
JEFFREYE+- L.E+- KESSLERE+- (DavidE+- L.E+- Greenspan,E+- onE+- the
brief),E+- WinstonE+- &E+- StrawnE+- LLP,E+- NewE+- York,E+- NY;
SteffenE+- N.E+- Johnson,E+- WinstonE+- &E+- StrawnE+- LLP,
Washington,E+- D.C.,E+- onE+- theE+- brief;E+- AndrewE+- S.
Tulumello,E+- Gibson,E+- DunnE+- &E+- Crutcher,
Washington,E+- D.C.,E+- onE+- theE+- brief,E+- forE+- DefendantE!
CounterE!ClaimantE!AppelleeE+- andE+- CounterE!ClaimantE!
Appellee.
________

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BARRINGTONE+-D.E+-PARKER,E+-CircuitE+-Judge:

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ThisE+- caseE+- involvesE+- anE+- arbitrationE+- arisingE+- fromE+- NewE+- England
PatriotsE+- quarterbackE+- TomE+- BradyasE+- involvementE+- inE+- aE+- schemeE+- to
deflateE+-footballsE+-usedE+-duringE+-theE+-2015E+-AmericanE+-FootballE+-Conference
ChampionshipE+- GameE+- toE+- aE+- pressureE+- belowE+- theE+- permissibleE+- range.E+-
FollowingE+- anE+- investigation,E+- theE+- NFLE+- suspendedE+- BradyE+- forE+- four
games.E+- E+- BradyE+- requestedE+- arbitrationE+- andE+- LeagueE+- Commissioner
RogerE+- Goodell,E+- servingE+- asE+- arbitrator,E+- enteredE+- anE+- awardE+- confirming
theE+- discipline.E+- E+- TheE+- partiesE+- soughtE+- judicialE+- reviewE+- andE+- theE+- district
courtE+-vacatedE+-theE+-award,E+-reasoningE+-thatE+-BradyE+-lackedE+-noticeE+-thatE+-his
conductE+-wasE+-prohibitedE+-andE+-punishableE+-byE+-suspension,E+-andE+-thatE+-the
mannerE+- inE+- whichE+- theE+- proceedingsE+- wereE+- conductedE+- deprivedE+- himE+- of
fundamentalE+- fairness.E+- E+- TheE+- LeagueE+- hasE+- appealedE+- andE+- weE+- now
reverse.

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TheE+- basicE+- principleE+- drivingE+- bothE+- ourE+- analysisE+- andE+- our
conclusionE+- isE+- wellE+- established:E+- aE+- federalE+- courtasE+- reviewE+- ofE+- labor
arbitrationE+- awardsE+- isE+- narrowlyE+- circumscribedE+- andE+- highly
deferentialaindeed,E+- amongE+- theE+- mostE+- deferentialE+- inE+- theE+- law.E+- E+- Our
3

Nos.E+-15E!2801E+-(L),E+-15E!2805E+-(CON)

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roleE+-isE+-notE+-toE+-determineE+-forE+-ourselvesE+-whetherE+-BradyE+-participatedE+-in
aE+-schemeE+-toE+-deflateE+-footballsE+-orE+-whetherE+-theE+-suspensionE+-imposedE+-by
theE+- CommissionerE+- shouldE+- haveE+- beenE+- forE+- threeE+- gamesE+- orE+- fiveE+- games
orE+- noneE+- atE+- all.E+- E+- NorE+- isE+- itE+- ourE+- roleE+- toE+- secondE!guessE+- theE+- arbitratoras
proceduralE+- rulings.E+- E+- OurE+- obligationE+- isE+- limitedE+- toE+- determiningE+-
whetherE+- theE+- arbitrationE+- proceedingsE+- andE+- awardE+- metE+- theE+- minimum
legalE+-standardsE+-establishedE+-byE+-theE+-LaborE+-ManagementE+-RelationsE+-Act,
29E+- U.S.C.E+- ASSE+- 141E+- etE+- seq.E+- (theE+- aLMRAa).E+- E+- WeE+- mustE+- simplyE+- ensureE+- that
theE+- arbitratorE+- wasE+- aevenE+- arguablyE+- construingE+- orE+- applyingE+- the
contractE+- andE+- actingE+- withinE+- theE+- scopeE+- ofE+- hisE+- authorityaE+- andE+- didE+- not
aignoreE+- theE+- plainE+- languageE+- ofE+- theE+- contract.aE+- E+- UnitedE+- PaperworksE+- Intal
UnionE+- v.E+- Misco,E+- Inc.,E+- 484E+- U.S.E+- 29,E+- 38E+- (1987).E+- E+- TheseE+- standardsE+- doE+- not
requireE+- perfectionE+- inE+- arbitrationE+- awards.E+- E+- Rather,E+- theyE+- dictateE+- that
evenE+- ifE+- anE+- arbitratorE+- makesE+- mistakesE+- ofE+- factE+- orE+- law,E+- weE+- mayE+- not
disturbE+- anE+- awardE+- soE+- longE+- asE+- heE+- actedE+- withinE+- theE+- boundsE+- ofE+- his
bargainedE!forE+-authority.E+-E+-
Here,E+-thatE+-authorityE+-wasE+-especiallyE+-broad.E+-E+-TheE+-Commissioner
wasE+- authorizedE+- toE+- imposeE+- disciplineE+- for,E+- amongE+- otherE+- things,
aconductE+-detrimentalE+-toE+-theE+-integrityE+-of,E+-orE+-publicE+-confidence,E+-inE+-the
gameE+- ofE+- professionalE+- football.aE+- E+- InE+- theirE+- collectiveE+- bargaining
agreement,E+- theE+- playersE+- andE+- theE+- LeagueE+- mutuallyE+- decidedE+- many
yearsE+- agoE+- thatE+- theE+- CommissionerE+- shouldE+- investigateE+- possibleE+- rule
violations,E+-shouldE+-imposeE+-appropriateE+-sanctions,E+-andE+-mayE+-presideE+-at
arbitrationsE+- challengingE+- hisE+- discipline.E+- E+- AlthoughE+- thisE+- tripartite
regimeE+- mayE+- appearE+- somewhatE+- unorthodox,E+- itE+- isE+- theE+- regime
bargainedE+- forE+- andE+- agreedE+- uponE+- byE+- theE+- parties,E+- whichE+- weE+- canE+- only
presumeE+-theyE+-determinedE+-wasE+-mutuallyE+-satisfactory.E+-E+-
GivenE+-thisE+-substantialE+-deference,E+-weE+-concludeE+-thatE+-thisE+-caseE+-is
notE+- anE+- exceptionalE+- oneE+- thatE+- warrantsE+- vacatur.E+- E+- OurE+- reviewE+- ofE+- the
recordE+- yieldsE+- theE+- firmE+- conclusionE+- thatE+- theE+- CommissionerE+- properly
exercisedE+- hisE+- broadE+- discretionE+- toE+- resolveE+- anE+- intramuralE+- controversy
betweenE+- theE+- LeagueE+- andE+- aE+- player.E+- E+- Accordingly,E+- weE+- REVERSEE+- the

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Nos.E+-15E!2801E+-(L),E+-15E!2805E+-(CON)

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judgmentE+- ofE+- theE+- districtE+- courtE+- andE+- REMANDE+- withE+- instructionsE+- to
confirmE+-theE+-award.1E+-

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BACKGROUND

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OnE+- JanuaryE+- 18,E+- 2015,E+- theE+- NewE+- EnglandE+- PatriotsE+- andE+- the
IndianapolisE+- ColtsE+- playedE+- inE+- theE+- AmericanE+- FootballE+- ConferenceE+-
ChampionshipE+-GameE+-atE+-theE+-PatriotsaE+-homeE+- stadiumE+-inE+-Foxborough,
MassachusettsE+- toE+- determineE+- whichE+- teamE+- wouldE+- advanceE+- toE+- Super
BowlE+- XLIX.E+- E+- DuringE+- theE+- secondE+- quarter,E+- ColtsE+- linebackerE+- DaQwell
JacksonE+-interceptedE+-aE+-passE+-thrownE+-byE+-BradyE+-andE+-tookE+-theE+-ballE+-toE+-the
sideline,E+-suspectingE+-itE+-mightE+-beE+-inflatedE+-belowE+-theE+-allowedE+-minimum
pressureE+- ofE+- 12.5E+-poundsE+-perE+-squareE+-inch.E+-E+-AfterE+-confirmingE+-thatE+-the
ballE+- wasE+- underinflated,E+- ColtsE+- personnelE+- informedE+- LeagueE+- officials,
whoE+- decidedE+- toE+- testE+- allE+- ofE+- theE+- gameE+- ballsE+- atE+- halftime.E+- E+- ElevenE+- other
PatriotsE+-ballsE+-andE+-fourE+-ColtsE+-ballsE+-wereE+-testedE+-usingE+-twoE+-airE+-gauges,
oneE+-ofE+-whichE+-hadE+-beenE+-usedE+-beforeE+-theE+-gameE+-toE+-ensureE+-thatE+-theE+-balls
wereE+-inflatedE+-withinE+-theE+-permissibleE+-rangeE+-ofE+-12.5E+-toE+-13.5E+-psi.E+-E+-While
eachE+-ofE+-theE+-fourE+-ColtsE+-ballsE+-testedE+-withinE+-theE+-permissibleE+-rangeE+-onE+-at
leastE+- oneE+- ofE+- theE+- gauges,E+- allE+- elevenE+- ofE+- theE+- PatriotsE+- ballsE+- measured
belowE+-12.5E+-psiE+-onE+-both.

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OnE+-JanuaryE+-23,E+-theE+-NationalE+-FootballE+-LeagueE+-announcedE+-thatE+-it
hadE+- retainedE+-TheodoreE+-V.E+-Wells,E+-Jr.,E+-Esq.,E+-andE+-theE+-lawE+-firmE+-ofE+-Paul,
Weiss,E+- Rifkind,E+- WhartonE+- &E+- GarrisonE+- toE+- conductE+- anE+- independent
investigationE+- intoE+- whetherE+- thereE+- hadE+- beenE+- improperE+- ballE+- tampering
beforeE+-orE+-duringE+-theE+-game.E+-E+-ThatE+-investigationE+-culminatedE+-inE+-aE+-139E!
pageE+- reportE+- releasedE+- onE+- MayE+- 6,E+- whichE+- concludedE+- thatE+- itE+- wasE+- amore
probableE+- thanE+- notaE+- thatE+- twoE+- PatriotsE+- equipmentE+- officialsaJim
McNallyE+- andE+- JohnE+- JastremskiahadE+- aparticipatedE+- inE+- aE+- deliberate
1

E+-WeE+-affirmE+-theE+-districtE+-courtasE+-denialE+-ofE+-MichelleE+-McGuirkasE+-motionE+-toE+-intervene,E+-No.
1:15E!cvE!05916E!RMBE!JCF,E+-ECFE+-No.E+-90,E+-inE+-aE+-summaryE+-orderE+-filedE+-simultaneouslyE+-withE+-this
Opinion.E+-E+-BelowE+-andE+-onE+-appeal,E+-McGuirkE+-offersE+-noE+-explanationE+-ofE+-herE+-rightE+-orE+-needE+-to
intervene,E+-beyondE+-aE+-desireE+-toE+-preventE+-afraudaE+-onE+-theE+-court.E+-E+-TheE+-relevantE+-FederalE+-Rules
ofE+-CivilE+-andE+-AppellateE+-ProcedureE+-doE+-notE+-permitE+-partiesE+-withE+-aE+-mereE+-academicE+-interest
inE+-aE+-litigationE+-toE+-insertE+-themselvesE+-intoE+-theE+-dispute.

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Nos.E+-15E!2801E+-(L),E+-15E!2805E+-(CON)

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effortE+- toE+- releaseE+- airE+- fromE+- PatriotsE+- gameE+- ballsE+- afterE+- theE+- ballsE+- were
examinedE+-byE+-theE+-referee.aE+-E+-JointE+-App.E+-atE+-97.2E+-E+-Specifically,E+-theE+-Report
foundE+- thatE+- McNallyE+- hadE+- removedE+- theE+- gameE+- ballsE+- fromE+- theE+- Officials
LockerE+- RoomE+- shortlyE+- beforeE+- theE+- game,E+- inE+- violationE+- ofE+- standard
protocol,E+- andE+- takenE+- themE+- toE+- aE+- singleE!toiletE+- bathroom,E+- whereE+- he
lockedE+- theE+- doorE+- andE+- usedE+- aE+- needleE+- toE+- deflateE+- theE+- PatriotsE+- footballs
beforeE+-bringingE+-themE+-toE+-theE+-playingE+-field.E+-E+-
InE+-additionE+-toE+-videotapeE+-evidenceE+-andE+-witnessE+-interviews,E+-the
investigationE+- teamE+- examinedE+- textE+- messagesE+- exchangedE+- between
McNallyE+- andE+- JastremskiE+- inE+- theE+- monthsE+- leadingE+- upE+- toE+- theE+- AFC
ChampionshipE+- Game.E+- E+- InE+- theE+- messages,E+- theE+- twoE+- discussedE+- Bradyas
statedE+-preferenceE+-forE+-lessE!inflatedE+-footballs.E+-E+-McNallyE+-alsoE+-referredE+-to
himselfE+- asE+- atheE+- deflatoraE+- andE+- quippedE+- thatE+- heE+- wasE+- anotE+- goingE+- to
espnE+- .E+- .E+- .E+- yet,aE+- andE+- JastremskiE+- agreedE+- toE+- provideE+- McNallyE+- withE+- a
aneedleaE+- inE+- exchangeE+- forE+- acash,aE+- anewkicks,aE+- andE+- memorabilia
autographedE+-byE+-Brady.E+-E+-JointE+-App.E+-atE+-99a102.E+-E+-TheE+-ReportE+-alsoE+-relied
onE+- aE+- scientificE+- studyE+- conductedE+- byE+- Exponent,E+- anE+- engineeringE+- and
scientificE+-consultingE+-firm,E+-whichE+-foundE+-thatE+-theE+-underinflationE+-could
notE+- abeE+- explainedE+- completelyE+- byE+- basicE+- scientificE+- principles,E+- suchE+- as
theE+- IdealE+- GasE+- Law,aE+- particularlyE+- sinceE+- theE+- averageE+- pressureE+- ofE+- the
PatriotsE+- ballsE+- wasE+- significantlyE+- lowerE+- thanE+- thatE+- ofE+- theE+- ColtsE+- balls.E+-
JointE+-App.E+-atE+-104a08.E+-E+-ExponentE+-furtherE+-concludedE+-thatE+-aE+-reasonably
experiencedE+- individualE+- couldE+- deflateE+- thirteenE+- footballsE+- usingE+- a
needleE+- inE+- wellE+- underE+- theE+- amountE+- ofE+- timeE+- thatE+- McNallyE+- wasE+- inE+- the
bathroom.3
TheE+- investigationE+- alsoE+- examinedE+- BradyasE+- potentialE+- roleE+- inE+- the
deflationE+- scheme.E+- E+- AlthoughE+- theE+- evidenceE+- ofE+- hisE+- involvementE+- was
alessE+-directaE+-thanE+-thatE+-ofE+-McNallyasE+-orE+-Jastremskias,E+-theE+-WellsE+-Report
concludedE+-thatE+-itE+-wasE+-amoreE+-probableE+-thanE+-notaE+-thatE+-BradyE+-hadE+-been
2

E+-TheE+-ReportE+-assessedE+-theE+-evidenceE+-underE+-theE+-amoreE+-probableE+-thanE+-notaE+-standard,
whichE+-appliesE+-toE+-violationsE+-ofE+-thisE+-kind.
3
E+-TheE+-WellsE+-ReportE+-concludedE+-thatE+-theE+-evidenceE+-didE+-notE+-establishE+-thatE+-anyE+-otherE+-Patriots
personnelE+-participatedE+-inE+-orE+-hadE+-knowledgeE+-ofE+-theseE+-actions.

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Nos.E+-15E!2801E+-(L),E+-15E!2805E+-(CON)

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aatE+-leastE+-generallyE+-awareaE+-ofE+-McNallyE+-andE+-JastremskiasE+-actions,E+-and
thatE+-itE+-wasE+-aunlikelyE+-thatE+-anE+-equipmentE+-assistantE+-andE+-aE+-lockerE+-room
attendantE+-wouldE+-deflateE+-gameE+-ballsE+-withoutE+-BradyasaE+-aknowledge,a
aapproval,aE+- aawareness,aE+- andE+- aconsent.aE+- E+- JointE+- App.E+- atE+- 112,E+- 114.E+-
AmongE+- otherE+- things,E+- theE+- ReportE+- citedE+- aE+- textE+- messageE+- exchange
betweenE+- McNallyE+- andE+- JastremskiE+- inE+- whichE+- McNallyE+- complained
aboutE+- BradyE+- andE+- threatenedE+- toE+- overinflateE+- theE+- gameE+- balls,E+- and
JastremskiE+- repliedE+- thatE+- heE+- hadE+- a[t]alkedE+- toE+- [Tom]E+- lastE+- nightaE+- and
a[Tom]E+- actuallyE+- broughtE+- youE+- upE+- andE+- saidE+- youE+- mustE+- haveE+- aE+- lotE+- of
stressE+-tryingE+-toE+-getE+-themE+-done.aE+-E+-JointE+-App.E+-atE+-112.E+-E+-TheE+-investigators
alsoE+- observedE+- thatE+- BradyE+- wasE+- aE+- aconstantE+- referenceE+- pointaE+- in
McNallyE+- andE+- JastremskiasE+- discussionsE+- aboutE+- theE+- scheme,E+- JointE+- App.
atE+-112,E+-hadE+-publiclyE+-statedE+-hisE+-preferenceE+-forE+-lessE!inflatedE+-footballsE+-in
theE+-past,E+-andE+-hadE+-beenE+-apersonallyE+-involvedE+-inE+-[a]E+-2006E+-ruleE+-change
thatE+-allowedE+-visitingE+-teamsE+-toE+-prepareE+-gameE+-ballsE+-inE+-accordanceE+-with
theE+-preferencesE+-ofE+-theirE+-quarterbacks,aE+-JointE+-App.E+-atE+-114.E+-
Significantly,E+- theE+- ReportE+- alsoE+- foundE+- that,E+- afterE+- moreE+- thanE+- six
monthsE+- ofE+- notE+- communicatingE+- byE+- phoneE+- orE+- message,E+- BradyE+- and
JastremskiE+- spokeE+- onE+- theE+- phoneE+- forE+- approximatelyE+- 25E+- minutesE+- on
JanuaryE+-19,E+-theE+-dayE+-theE+-investigationE+-wasE+-announced.E+-E+-ThisE+-unusual
patternE+-ofE+-communicationE+-continuedE+-overE+-theE+-nextE+-twoE+-days.E+-E+-Brady
hadE+- alsoE+- takenE+- theE+- aunprecedentedE+- stepaE+- onE+- JanuaryE+- 19E+- ofE+- inviting
JastremskiE+-toE+-theE+-quarterbackE+-room,E+-andE+-hadE+-sentE+-JastremskiE+-several
textE+- messagesE+- thatE+- dayE+- thatE+- wereE+- apparentlyE+- designedE+- toE+- calmE+- him.E+-
TheE+- ReportE+- addedE+- thatE+- theE+- investigationE+- hadE+- beenE+- impairedE+- by
BradyasE+- refusalE+- atoE+- makeE+- availableE+- anyE+- documentsE+- orE+- electronic
informationE+-(includingE+-textE+-messagesE+-andE+-emails),aE+-notwithstanding
anE+- offerE+- byE+- theE+- investigatorsE+- toE+- allowE+- BradyasE+- counselE+- toE+- screenE+- the
production.E+-E+-JointE+-App.E+-atE+-116.
InE+- aE+- letterE+- datedE+- MayE+- 11,E+- 2015,E+- NFLE+- ExecutiveE+- ViceE+- President
TroyE+-Vincent,E+-Sr.,E+-notifiedE+-BradyE+-thatE+-GoodellE+-hadE+-authorizedE+-aE+-fourE!
gameE+- suspensionE+- ofE+- himE+- pursuantE+- toE+- ArticleE+- 46E+- ofE+- theE+- Collective
BargainingE+- AgreementE+- betweenE+- theE+- LeagueE+- andE+- theE+- NFLE+- Players
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Nos.E+-15E!2801E+-(L),E+-15E!2805E+-(CON)

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AssociationE+- (theE+- aAssociationaE+- orE+- theE+- aNFLPAa)E+- forE+- engagingE+- in
aconductE+-detrimentalE+-toE+-theE+-integrityE+-ofE+-andE+-publicE+-confidenceE+-inE+-the
gameE+-ofE+-professionalE+-football.aE+-E+-JointE+-App.E+-atE+-329.4E+-E+-TheE+-disciplinary
letterE+- citedE+- theE+- WellsE+- ReportasE+- conclusionsE+- regardingE+- Bradyas
awarenessE+- andE+- knowledgeE+- ofE+- theE+- scheme,E+- asE+- wellE+- asE+- hisE+- afailureE+- to
cooperateE+- fullyE+- andE+- candidlyE+- withE+- theE+- investigation,E+- includingE+- by
refusingE+- toE+- produceE+- anyE+- relevantE+- electronicE+- evidenceE+- (emails,E+- texts,
etc.)E+- despiteE+- beingE+- offeredE+- extraordinaryE+- safeguardsE+- byE+- the
investigatorsE+-toE+-protectE+-unrelatedE+-personalE+-information.aE+-E+-JointE+-App.
atE+-329.
Brady,E+- throughE+- theE+- Association,E+- filedE+- aE+- timelyE+- appealE+- ofE+- the
suspension,E+- andE+- theE+- CommissionerE+- exercisedE+- hisE+- discretionE+- under
theE+- CBAE+- toE+- serveE+- asE+- theE+- hearingE+- officer.E+- E+- TheE+- AssociationE+- soughtE+- to
challengeE+- theE+- factualE+- conclusionsE+- ofE+- theE+- WellsE+- Report,E+- andE+- also
arguedE+- thatE+- theE+- CommissionerE+- hadE+- improperlyE+- delegatedE+- his
authorityE+- toE+- disciplineE+- playersE+- pursuantE+- toE+- theE+- CBA.E+- E+- PriorE+- toE+- the
hearing,E+-theE+-AssociationE+-filedE+-severalE+-motions,E+-includingE+-aE+-motionE+-to
recuseE+- theE+- Commissioner,E+- aE+- motionE+- toE+- compelE+- NFLE+- ExecutiveE+- Vice
PresidentE+- andE+- GeneralE+- CounselE+- JeffE+- PashE+- toE+- testifyE+- regardingE+- his
involvementE+-inE+-theE+-preparationE+-ofE+-theE+-WellsE+-Report,E+-andE+-aE+-motionE+-to
compelE+-theE+-productionE+-ofE+-Paul,E+-WeissasE+-internalE+-investigationE+-notes.E+-E+-
4

E+-ArticleE+-46,E+-SectionE+-1(a),E+-reads,E+-inE+-full:
AllE+- disputesE+- involvingE+- aE+- fineE+- orE+- suspensionE+- imposedE+- uponE+- a
playerE+- forE+- conductE+- onE+- theE+- playingE+- fieldE+- (otherE+- thanE+- asE+- describedE+- in
SubsectionE+-(b)E+-below)E+-orE+-involvingE+-actionE+-takenE+-againstE+-aE+-playerE+-byE+-the
CommissionerE+- forE+- conductE+- detrimentalE+- toE+- theE+- integrityE+- of,E+- orE+- public
confidenceE+- in,E+- theE+- gameE+- ofE+- professionalE+- football,E+- willE+- beE+- processed
exclusivelyE+- asE+- follows:E+- theE+- CommissionerE+- willE+- promptlyE+- sendE+- written
noticeE+-ofE+-hisE+-actionE+-toE+-theE+-player,E+-withE+-aE+-copyE+-toE+-theE+-NFLPA.E+-E+-WithinE+-three
(3)E+-businessE+-daysE+-followingE+-suchE+-writtenE+-notification,E+-theE+-playerE+-affected
thereby,E+-orE+-theE+-NFLPAE+-withE+-theE+-playerasE+-approval,E+-mayE+-appealE+-inE+-writing
toE+-theE+-Commissioner.

JointE+-App.E+-atE+-345.E+-E+-ArticleE+-46E+-furtherE+-providesE+-thatE+-atheE+-CommissionerE+-mayE+-serveE+-as
hearingE+-officerE+-inE+-anyE+-appealE+-underE+-SectionE+-1(a)E+-ofE+-thisE+-ArticleE+-atE+-hisE+-discretion.aE+-E+-Joint
App.E+-atE+-346.

8

Nos.E+-15E!2801E+-(L),E+-15E!2805E+-(CON)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33

TheE+-CommissionerE+-deniedE+-theE+-motionsE+-inE+-decisionsE+-issuedE+-on
JuneE+- 2E+- andE+- JuneE+- 22,E+- 2015.E+- E+- HeE+- reasonedE+- thatE+- hisE+- recusalE+- wasE+- not
warrantedE+- becauseE+- heE+- didE+- notE+- adelegateE+- [his]E+- disciplinaryE+- authority
toE+-Mr.E+-VincentaE+-andE+-didE+-anotE+-haveE+-anyE+-firstE!handE+-knowledgeE+-ofE+-any
ofE+- theE+- eventsE+- atE+- issue.aE+- E+- SpecialE+- App.E+- atE+- 67a68.E+- E+- TheE+- Commissioner
alsoE+- declinedE+- toE+- compelE+- PashasE+- testimony,E+- sayingE+- thatE+- PashE+- didE+- not
aplayE+- aE+- substantiveE+- roleE+- inE+- theE+- investigation,aE+- andE+- thatE+- theE+- Wells
ReportE+-madeE+-clearE+-thatE+-itE+-wasE+-apreparedE+-entirelyE+-byE+-theE+-PaulE+-Weiss
investigativeE+-team.aE+-E+-SpecialE+-App.E+-atE+-63.E+-E+-TheE+-CommissionerE+-offered
toE+- revisitE+- hisE+- rulingE+- ashouldE+- theE+- partiesE+- presentE+- evidenceE+- showing
thatE+- theE+- testimonyE+- ofE+- [Pash]E+- .E+- .E+- .E+- isE+- necessaryE+- forE+- aE+- fullE+- andE+- fair
hearing,aE+-SpecialE+-App.E+-atE+-64,E+-butE+-theE+-AssociationE+-neverE+-askedE+-himE+-to
reconsider.E+- E+- AsE+- toE+- theE+- Paul,E+- WeissE+- investigationE+- notes,E+- the
CommissionerE+- ruledE+- thatE+- theE+- CBAE+- didE+- notE+- requireE+- theirE+- production
and,E+- inE+- anyE+- event,E+- theE+- notesE+- playedE+- noE+- roleE+- inE+- hisE+- disciplinary
decision.
OnE+-JuneE+-23,E+-theE+-CommissionerE+-heldE+-aE+-hearingE+-involvingE+-nearly
tenE+-hoursE+-ofE+-swornE+-testimonyE+-andE+-argumentE+-andE+-approximatelyE+-300
exhibits.E+- E+- ShortlyE+- beforeE+- theE+- hearing,E+- itE+- wasE+- revealedE+- thatE+- onE+- March
6atheE+- sameE+- dayE+- thatE+- heE+- wasE+- toE+- beE+- interviewedE+- byE+- theE+- Wells
investigativeE+- teamaBradyE+- hadE+- ainstructedE+- hisE+- assistantE+- toE+- destroy
theE+- cellphoneE+- thatE+- heE+- hadE+- beenE+- usingE+- sinceE+- earlyE+- NovemberE+- 2014,E+- a
periodE+- thatE+- includedE+- theE+- AFCE+- ChampionshipE+- GameE+- andE+- theE+- initial
weeksE+- ofE+- theE+- subsequentE+- investigation,aE+- despiteE+- knowingE+- thatE+- the
investigatorsE+- hadE+- requestedE+- informationE+- fromE+- theE+- phoneE+- several
weeksE+-before.E+-E+-SpecialE+-App.E+-atE+-42.E+-E+-AlthoughE+-BradyE+-testifiedE+-thatE+-he
wasE+- followingE+- hisE+- ordinaryE+- practiceE+- ofE+- disposingE+- ofE+- oldE+- cellE+- phones
inE+-orderE+-toE+-protectE+-hisE+-personalE+-privacy,E+-heE+-hadE+-nonethelessE+-retained
phonesE+-thatE+-heE+-hadE+-usedE+-beforeE+-andE+-afterE+-theE+-relevantE+-timeE+-frame.
OnE+-JulyE+-28,E+-theE+-CommissionerE+-issuedE+-aE+-finalE+-decisionE+-affirming
theE+-fourE!gameE+-suspension.E+-E+-BasedE+-uponE+-theE+-newlyE+-revealedE+-evidence
regardingE+-theE+-destructionE+-ofE+-theE+-cellE+-phone,E+-theE+-CommissionerE+-found
thatE+- BradyE+- hadE+- notE+- onlyE+- failedE+- toE+- cooperateE+- withE+- theE+- investigation,
9

Nos.E+-15E!2801E+-(L),E+-15E!2805E+-(CON)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

butE+- amadeE+- aE+- deliberateE+- effortE+- toE+- ensureE+- thatE+- investigatorsE+- would
neverE+- haveE+- accessE+- toE+- informationE+- thatE+- heE+- hadE+- beenE+- askedE+- to
produce.aE+- E+- SpecialE+- App.E+- atE+- 54.E+- E+- TheE+- CommissionerE+- consequently
drewE+-anE+-adverseE+-inferenceE+-thatE+-theE+-cellE+-phoneE+-wouldE+-haveE+-contained
inculpatoryE+-evidence,E+-andE+-concluded:
(1)E+- Mr.E+- BradyE+- participatedE+- inE+- aE+- schemeE+- toE+- tamperE+- with
theE+- gameE+- ballsE+- afterE+- theyE+- hadE+- beenE+- approvedE+- byE+- the
gameE+- officialsE+- forE+- useE+- inE+- theE+- AFCE+- ChampionshipE+- Game
andE+-(2)E+-Mr.E+-BradyE+-willfullyE+-obstructedE+-theE+-investigation
by,E+- amongE+- otherE+- things,E+- affirmativelyE+- arrangingE+- for
destructionE+- ofE+- hisE+- cellphoneE+- knowingE+- thatE+- itE+- contained
potentiallyE+- relevantE+- informationE+- thatE+- hadE+- been
requestedE+-byE+-theE+-investigators.
SpecialE+- App.E+- atE+- 54.E+- E+- Finally,E+- theE+- CommissionerE+- analogizedE+- Bradyas
conductE+- toE+- thatE+- ofE+- steroidE+- users,E+- whomE+- heE+- believedE+- seekE+- toE+- gainE+- a
similarE+- systematicE+- competitiveE+- advantage,E+- andE+- consequently
affirmedE+- that,E+- inE+- hisE+- view,E+- theE+- fourE!gameE+- suspensionE+- typically
imposedE+- onE+- firstE!timeE+- steroidE+- usersE+- wasE+- equallyE+- appropriateE+- inE+- this
context.
TheE+-LeagueE+-commencedE+-anE+-actionE+-theE+-sameE+-dayE+-inE+-theE+-United
StatesE+-DistrictE+-CourtE+-forE+-theE+-SouthernE+-DistrictE+-ofE+-NewE+-YorkE+-(Berman,
J.),E+- seekingE+- confirmationE+- ofE+- theE+- awardE+- underE+- theE+- LMRA.E+- E+- The
AssociationE+- broughtE+- anE+- actionE+- toE+- vacateE+- theE+- awardE+- inE+- theE+- United
StatesE+- DistrictE+- CourtE+- forE+- theE+- DistrictE+- ofE+- Minnesota,E+- whichE+- was
subsequentlyE+-transferredE+-toE+-theE+-SouthernE+-District.E+-E+-
OnE+-SeptemberE+-3,E+-theE+-districtE+-courtE+-issuedE+-aE+-decisionE+-andE+-order
grantingE+-theE+-AssociationasE+-motionE+-toE+-vacateE+-theE+-awardE+-andE+-denying
theE+-LeagueasE+-motionE+-toE+-confirm.E+-E+-NatalE+-FootballE+-LeagueE+-Mgmt.E+-Council
v.E+- NatalE+- FootballE+- LeagueE+- PlayersE+- Assan,E+- 125E+- F.E+- Supp.E+- 3dE+- 449E+- (S.D.N.Y.
2015).E+-E+-TheE+-courtE+-reasonedE+-thatE+-BradyE+-lackedE+-noticeE+-thatE+-heE+-couldE+-be
suspendedE+- forE+- fourE+- gamesE+- becauseE+- theE+- provisionsE+- applicableE+- toE+- his
conductE+-providedE+-thatE+-onlyE+-finesE+-couldE+-beE+-imposed.E+-E+-TheE+-courtE+-also
10

Nos.E+-15E!2801E+-(L),E+-15E!2805E+-(CON)

5

heldE+- thatE+- theE+- awardE+- wasE+- defectiveE+- becauseE+- theE+- Commissioner
deprivedE+- BradyE+- ofE+- fundamentalE+- fairnessE+- byE+- denyingE+- the
AssociationasE+- motionsE+- toE+- compelE+- theE+- productionE+- ofE+- Paul,E+- Weissas
internalE+-notesE+-andE+-PashasE+-testimonyE+-regardingE+-hisE+-involvementE+-with
theE+-WellsE+-Report.E+-E+-TheE+-LeagueE+-timelyE+-appealed,E+-andE+-weE+-nowE+-reverse.

6

STANDARDE+-OFE+-REVIEW

7

WeE+- reviewE+- aE+- districtE+- courtasE+- decisionE+- toE+- confirmE+- orE+- vacateE+- an
arbitrationE+-awardE+-deE+-novoE+-onE+-questionsE+-ofE+-lawE+-andE+-forE+-clearE+-errorE+-on
findingsE+-ofE+-fact.E+-E+-WackenhutE+-Corp.E+-v.E+-AmalgamatedE+-LocalE+-515,E+-126E+-F.3d
29,E+-31E+-(2dE+-Cir.E+-1997).E+-E+-BecauseE+-thisE+-disputeE+-involvesE+-theE+-assertionE+-of
rightsE+- underE+- aE+- collectiveE+- bargainingE+- agreement,E+- ourE+- analysisE+- is
governedE+-byE+-sectionE+-301E+-ofE+-theE+-LMRA.E+-E+-MajorE+-LeagueE+-BaseballE+-Players
AssanE+-v.E+-Garvey,E+-532E+-U.S.E+-504,E+-509E+-(2001).E+-E+-

1
2
3
4

8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

TheE+- LMRAE+- establishesE+- aE+- federalE+- policyE+- ofE+- promoting
aindustrialE+- stabilizationE+- throughE+- theE+- collectiveE+- bargaining
agreement,aE+- withE+- particularE+- emphasisE+- onE+- privateE+- arbitrationE+- of
grievances.E+-E+-UnitedE+-SteelworkersE+-v.E+-WarriorE+-&E+-GulfE+-NavigationE+-Co.,E+-363
U.S.E+- 574,E+- 578E+- (1960).E+- E+- TheE+- ActE+- embodiesE+- aE+- aclearE+- preferenceE+- forE+- the
privateE+- resolutionE+- ofE+- laborE+- disputesE+- withoutE+- government
intervention.aE+- E+- IntalE+- Bhd.E+- ofE+- Elec.E+- WorkersE+- v.E+- NiagaraE+- MohawkE+- Power
Corp.,E+-143E+-F.3dE+-704,E+-714E+-(2dE+-Cir.E+-1998).E+-E+-
UnderE+- thisE+- frameworkE+- ofE+- selfE!government,E+- theE+- collective
bargainingE+-agreementE+-isE+-notE+-justE+-aE+-contract,E+-butE+-aaE+-generalizedE+-code
toE+- governE+- aE+- myriadE+- ofE+- casesE+- whichE+- theE+- draftsmenE+- cannotE+- wholly
anticipate.aE+- E+- Warrior,E+- 363E+- U.S.E+- atE+- 578.E+- E+- CollectiveE+- bargaining
agreementsE+-areE+-notE+-imposedE+-byE+-legislaturesE+-orE+-governmentE+-agencies.E+-
Rather,E+- theyE+- areE+- negotiatedE+- andE+- refinedE+- overE+- timeE+- byE+- theE+- parties
themselvesE+- soE+- asE+- toE+- bestE+- reflectE+- theirE+- priorities,E+- expectations,E+- and
experience.E+- E+- Similarly,E+- theE+- arbitratorsE+- areE+- chosenE+- byE+- theE+- parties
becauseE+-ofE+-theirE+-expertiseE+-inE+-theE+-particularE+-businessE+-andE+-theirE+-trusted
judgmentE+- toE+- ainterpretE+- andE+- applyE+- [the]E+- agreementE+- inE+- accordance
withE+-theE+-aindustrialE+-commonE+-lawE+-ofE+-theE+-shopaE+-andE+-theE+-variousE+-needs
11

Nos.E+-15E!2801E+-(L),E+-15E!2805E+-(CON)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

andE+-desiresE+-ofE+-theE+-parties.aE+-E+-AlexanderE+-v.E+-GardnerE!DenverE+-Co.,E+-415E+-U.S.
36,E+-53E+-(1974).E+-E+-TheE+-arbitrationE+-processE+-isE+-thusE+-apartE+-andE+-parcelE+-ofE+-the
ongoingE+-processE+-ofE+-collectiveE+-bargaining.aE+-E+-Misco,E+-484E+-U.S.E+-atE+-38.E+-
OurE+- reviewE+- ofE+- anE+- arbitrationE+- awardE+- underE+- theE+- LMRAE+- is,
accordingly,E+- averyE+- limited.aE+- E+- Garvey,E+- 532E+- U.S.E+- atE+- 509.E+- E+- WeE+- are
thereforeE+- notE+- authorizedE+- toE+- reviewE+- theE+- arbitratorasE+- decisionE+- onE+- the
meritsE+-despiteE+-allegationsE+-thatE+-theE+-decisionE+-restsE+-onE+-factualE+-errorsE+-or
misinterpretsE+-theE+-partiesaE+-agreement,E+-butE+-inquireE+-onlyE+-asE+-toE+-whether
theE+- arbitratorE+- actedE+- withinE+- theE+- scopeE+- ofE+- hisE+- authorityE+- asE+- definedE+- by
theE+- collectiveE+- bargainingE+- agreement.E+- E+- BecauseE+- itE+- isE+- theE+- arbitratoras
viewE+- ofE+- theE+- factsE+- andE+- theE+- meaningE+- ofE+- theE+- contractE+- forE+- whichE+- the
partiesE+- bargained,E+- courtsE+- areE+- notE+- permittedE+- toE+- substituteE+- theirE+- own.E+-
Misco,E+- 484E+- U.S.E+- atE+- 37a38.E+- E+- ItE+- isE+- theE+- arbitratorasE+- E+- constructionE+- ofE+- the
contractE+- andE+- assessmentE+- ofE+- theE+- factsE+- thatE+- areE+- dispositive,E+- ahowever
good,E+- bad,E+- orE+- ugly.aE+- E+- OxfordE+- HealthE+- PlansE+- LLCE+- v.E+- Sutter,E+- 133E+- S.E+- Ct.
2064,E+- 2071E+- (2013).E+- E+- ContraryE+- toE+- ourE+- dissentingE+- colleague,E+- weE+- doE+- not
considerE+- whetherE+- theE+- punishmentE+- imposedE+- wasE+- theE+- most
appropriate,E+- orE+- whetherE+- weE+- areE+- persuadedE+- byE+- theE+- arbitratoras
reasoning.E+-E+-InE+-short,E+-itE+-isE+-notE+-ourE+-taskE+-toE+-decideE+-howE+-weE+-wouldE+-have
conductedE+- theE+- arbitrationE+- proceedings,E+- orE+- howE+- weE+- wouldE+- have
resolvedE+-theE+-dispute.E+-E+-
Instead,E+- ourE+- taskE+- isE+- simplyE+- toE+- ensureE+- thatE+- theE+- arbitratorE+- was
aevenE+- arguablyE+- construingE+- orE+- applyingE+- theE+- contractE+- andE+- acting
withinE+- theE+- scopeE+- ofE+- hisE+- authorityaE+- andE+- didE+- notE+- aignoreE+- theE+- plain
languageE+- ofE+- theE+- contract.aE+- E+- Misco,E+- 484E+- U.S.E+- atE+- 38.E+- E+- EvenE+- failureE+- to
afollowE+- arbitralE+- precedentaE+- isE+- noE+- areasonE+- toE+- vacateE+- anE+- award.aE+-
Wackenhut,E+-126E+-F.3dE+-atE+-32.E+-E+-AsE+-longE+-asE+-theE+-awardE+-aadrawsE+-itsE+-essence
fromE+- theE+- collectiveE+- bargainingE+- agreementaE+- andE+- isE+- notE+- merelyE+- the
arbitratorasE+-aownE+-brandE+-ofE+-industrialE+-justice,aaE+-itE+-mustE+-beE+-confirmed.E+-
NiagaraE+-Mohawk,E+-143E+-F.3dE+-atE+-714E+-(quotingE+-UnitedE+-SteelworkersE+-v.E+-Enter.
WheelE+-&E+-CarE+-Corp.,E+-363E+-U.S.E+-593,E+-597E+-(1960));E+-seeE+-alsoE+-Garvey,E+-532E+-U.S.
atE+- 509;E+- 187E+- ConcourseE+- Assocs.E+- v.E+- Fishman,E+- 399E+- F.3dE+- 524,E+- 527E+- (2dE+- Cir.

12

Nos.E+-15E!2801E+-(L),E+-15E!2805E+-(CON)

9

2005).5E+- E+- IfE+- theE+- arbitratorE+- actsE+- withinE+- theE+- scopeE+- ofE+- thisE+- authority,E+- the
remedyE+-forE+-aE+-dissatisfiedE+-partyE+-aisE+-notE+-judicialE+-intervention,aE+-butE+-afor
theE+-partiesE+-toE+-draftE+-theirE+-agreementE+-toE+-reflectE+-theE+-scopeE+-ofE+-powerE+-they
wouldE+- likeE+- theirE+- arbitratorE+- toE+- exercise.aE+- E+- UnitedE+- Bhd.E+- ofE+- CarpentersE+- v.
TappanE+- ZeeE+- Constr.,E+- LLC,E+- 804E+- F.3dE+- 270,E+- 275E+- (2dE+- Cir.E+- 2015)E+- (internal
quotationE+-marksE+-omitted)E+-(quotingE+-T.CoE+-Metals,E+-LLCE+-v.E+-DempseyE+-Pipe
&E+- Supply,E+- Inc.,E+- 592E+- F.3dE+- 329,E+- 345E+- (2dE+- Cir.E+- 2010)).E+- E+- AgainstE+- thisE+- legal
backdrop,E+- weE+- turnE+- toE+- theE+- decisionE+- belowE+- andE+- theE+- arguments
advancedE+-onE+-appeal.

10

DISCUSSION

11

ArticleE+- 46E+- ofE+- theE+- CBAE+- empowersE+- theE+- CommissionerE+- toE+- take
disciplinaryE+-actionE+-againstE+-aE+-playerE+-whomE+-heE+-areasonablyE+-judge[s]a
toE+- E+- haveE+- engagedE+- inE+- aconductE+- detrimentalE+- toE+- theE+- integrityE+- of,E+- or
publicE+-confidenceE+-in,E+-theE+-gameE+-ofE+-professionalE+-football.aE+-E+-JointE+-App.
atE+- 345,E+- 353.6E+- E+- AE+- disciplinedE+- playerE+- isE+- entitledE+- toE+- appealE+- toE+- the
CommissionerE+- andE+- seekE+- anE+- arbitrationE+- hearing,E+- andE+- the
CommissionerE+-mayE+-appointE+-eitherE+-himselfE+-orE+-someoneE+-elseE+-toE+-serve
asE+- arbitrator.E+- E+- E+- ArticleE+- 46E+- doesE+- notE+- articulateE+- rulesE+- ofE+- procedureE+- for
theE+-hearing,E+-exceptE+-toE+-provideE+-thatE+-atheE+-partiesE+-shallE+-exchangeE+-copies
ofE+-anyE+-exhibitsE+-uponE+-whichE+-theyE+-intendE+-toE+-relyE+-noE+-laterE+-thanE+-threeE+-(3)
calendarE+-daysE+-priorE+-toE+-theE+-hearing.aE+-E+-JointE+-App.E+-atE+-346.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

OnE+- thisE+- appeal,E+- theE+- AssociationE+- doesE+- notE+- contestE+- theE+- factual
findingsE+- ofE+- theE+- Commissioner.E+- E+- NorE+- doesE+- theE+- AssociationE+- dispute
thatE+- theE+- CommissionerE+- wasE+- entitled,E+- underE+- ArticleE+- 46,E+- toE+- determine
thatE+-BradyasE+-aparticipat[ion]E+-inE+-aE+-schemeE+-toE+-tamperE+-withE+-gameE+-ballsa
5

E+-ThisE+-deferentialE+-standardE+-isE+-noE+-lessE+-applicableE+-whereE+-theE+-industryE+-isE+-aE+-sports
association.E+-E+-WeE+-doE+-notE+-sitE+-asE+-refereesE+-ofE+-footballE+-anyE+-moreE+-thanE+-weE+-sitE+-asE+-theE+-aumpiresa
ofE+-baseballE+-orE+-theE+-asuperE!scoreraE+-forE+-stockE+-carE+-racing.E+-E+-Otherwise,E+-weE+-wouldE+-become
miredE+-downE+-inE+-theE+-areasE+-ofE+-aE+-groupasE+-activityE+-concerningE+-whichE+-onlyE+-theE+-groupE+-can
speakE+-competently.E+-E+-SeeE+-CrouchE+-v.E+-NatalE+-AssanE+-forE+-StockE+-CarE+-AutoE+-Racing,E+-Inc.,E+-845E+-F.2dE+-397,
403E+-(2dE+-Cir.E+-1988);E+-CharlesE+-O.E+-FinleyE+-&E+-Co.,E+-Inc.E+-v.E+-Kuhn,E+-569E+-F.2dE+-527,E+-536a38E+-(7thE+-Cir.
1978).
6
E+-PlayersE+-areE+-putE+-onE+-noticeE+-ofE+-theE+-CommissionerasE+-ArticleE+-46E+-authorityE+-byE+-wayE+-ofE+-the
LeagueE+-PoliciesE+-forE+-PlayersE+-andE+-theE+-NFLE+-PlayerE+-Contract.

13

Nos.E+-15E!2801E+-(L),E+-15E!2805E+-(CON)

1
2
3

wasE+-aconductE+-detrimentalaE+-worthyE+-ofE+-aE+-fourE!gameE+-suspension.E+-E+-The
partiesE+- disagree,E+- however,E+- asE+- toE+- whetherE+- otherE+- aspectsE+- ofE+- theE+- CBA
andE+-theE+-relevantE+-caseE+-lawE+-requireE+-vacaturE+-ofE+-theE+-award.E+-E+-

11

TheE+- districtE+- courtE+- identifiedE+- threeE+- basesE+- forE+- overturning
BradyasE+-suspension:E+-(1)E+-theE+-lackE+-ofE+-adequateE+-noticeE+-thatE+-deflationE+-of
footballsE+- couldE+- leadE+- toE+- aE+- fourE!gameE+- suspension,E+- (2)E+- theE+- exclusionE+- of
testimonyE+-fromE+-Pash,E+-andE+-(3)E+-theE+-denialE+-ofE+-accessE+-toE+-theE+-investigative
notesE+- ofE+- theE+- attorneysE+- fromE+- Paul,E+- WeissE+- whoE+- preparedE+- theE+- Wells
Report.E+- E+- WeE+- concludeE+- thatE+- eachE+- ofE+- theseE+- groundsE+- isE+- insufficientE+- to
warrantE+- vacaturE+- andE+- thatE+- noneE+- ofE+- theE+- AssociationasE+- remaining
argumentsE+-haveE+-merit.

12

I.

13

TheE+- partiesE+- agreeE+- thatE+- theE+- alawE+- ofE+- theE+- shopaE+- requiresE+- the
LeagueE+- toE+- provideE+- playersE+- withE+- advanceE+- noticeE+- ofE+- aprohibited
conductE+- andE+- potentialE+- discipline.aE+- E+- TheE+- districtE+- courtE+- identified
severalE+-groundsE+-forE+-concludingE+-thatE+-BradyE+-hadE+-noE+-noticeE+-thatE+-either
hisE+- conductE+- wasE+- prohibitedE+- orE+- thatE+- itE+- couldE+- serveE+- asE+- aE+- groundE+- for
suspension.E+-

4
5
6
7
8
9
10

14
15
16
17
18

A.

19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

LackE+-ofE+-AdequateE+-Notice

TheE+-PlayerE+-Policies

TheE+-AssociationasE+-chiefE+-groundE+-forE+-vacatur,E+-reliedE+-uponE+-byE+-the
districtE+-court,E+-isE+-thatE+-theE+-CommissionerE+-improperlyE+-suspendedE+-Brady
pursuantE+- toE+- theE+- aconductE+- detrimentalaE+- clauseE+- ofE+- ArticleE+- 46E+- because
BradyE+-wasE+-onlyE+-onE+-noticeE+-thatE+-hisE+-conductE+-couldE+-leadE+-toE+-aE+-fineE+-under
theE+-moreE+-specificE+-aDisciplineE+-forE+-GameE!RelatedE+-MisconductaE+-section
ofE+- theE+- LeagueE+- PoliciesE+- forE+- PlayersE+- (theE+- aPlayerE+- Policiesa).E+- These
Policies,E+- whichE+- areE+- collectedE+- inE+- aE+- handbookE+- distributedE+- toE+- allE+- NFL
playersE+- atE+- theE+- beginningE+- ofE+- eachE+- season,E+- includeE+- aE+- sectionE+- entitled
aOtherE+-Uniform/EquipmentE+-Violations.a7
7

E+-TheE+-aOtherE+-Uniform/EquipmentE+-ViolationsaE+-sectionE+-reads,E+-inE+-full:
TheE+-2014E+-UniformE+-Policy,E+-theE+-2014E+-OnE+-FieldE+-Policy,E+-andE+-theE+-enforcement
proceduresE+-forE+-theseE+-policiesE+-areE+-attachedE+-atE+-theE+-endE+-ofE+-thisE+-section.
AE+-LeagueE+-representativeE+-willE+-conductE+-aE+-thoroughE+-reviewE+-ofE+-allE+-playersE+-in

14

Nos.E+-15E!2801E+-(L),E+-15E!2805E+-(CON)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

TheE+- AssociationE+- arguesE+- thatE+- theE+- CommissionerE+- wasE+- not
permittedE+- toE+- imposeE+- aE+- fourE!gameE+- suspensionE+- underE+- ArticleE+- 46
becauseE+- theE+- PlayerE+- PoliciesE+- mandatedE+- onlyE+- aE+- fineE+- forE+- equipment
infractions.E+- E+- TheE+- AssociationE+- furtherE+- contendsE+- thatE+- theE+- awardE+- is
additionallyE+- defectiveE+- becauseE+- theE+- CommissionerE+- failedE+- toE+- make
findingsE+- asE+- toE+- theE+- applicabilityE+- orE+- interpretationE+- ofE+- theE+- Player
Policies.E+-E+-SeeE+-ClinchfieldE+-CoalE+-Co.E+-v.E+-Dist.E+-28,E+-UnitedE+-MineE+-Workers,E+-720
F.2dE+- 1365,E+- 1369E+- (4thE+- Cir.E+- 1983)E+- (aWhereE+- .E+- .E+- .E+- theE+- arbitratorE+- failsE+- to
discussE+- criticalE+- contractE+- terminology,E+- whichE+- terminologyE+- might
reasonablyE+- requireE+- anE+- oppositeE+- result,E+- theE+- awardE+- cannotE+- be
consideredE+-toE+-drawE+-itsE+-essenceE+-fromE+-theE+-contract.a).E+-E+-
ThisE+- argumentE+- byE+- theE+- AssociationE+- hasE+- aE+- torturedE+- procedural
history.E+- E+- DuringE+- arbitration,E+- theE+- AssociationE+- disclaimedE+- the
applicabilityE+- ofE+- theE+- PlayerE+- Policies,E+- sayingE+- aweE+- donatE+- believeE+- this
policyE+-appliesE+-either,E+-becauseE+-thereE+-isE+-nothingE+-hereE+-aboutE+-theE+-balls.aE+-
JointE+- App.E+- atE+- 956.E+- E+- ThisE+- changeE+- ofE+- positionE+- isE+- itselfE+- groundsE+- for
uniformE+-duringE+-pregameE+-warmE!ups.
AllE+-uniformE+-andE+-OnE+-FieldE+-violationsE+-detectedE+-duringE+-theE+-routineE+-pregame
checkE+-mustE+-beE+-correctedE+-priorE+-toE+-kickoff,E+-orE+-theE+-offendingE+-player(s)E+-will
notE+- beE+- allowedE+- toE+- enterE+- theE+- game.E+- E+- AE+- violationE+- thatE+- occursE+- duringE+- the
gameE+-willE+-resultE+-inE+-theE+-playerE+-beingE+-removedE+-fromE+-theE+-gameE+-untilE+-the
violationE+-isE+-corrected.
LeagueE+- disciplineE+- mayE+- alsoE+- beE+- imposedE+- onE+- playersE+- whoseE+- equipment,
uniform,E+-orE+-OnE+-FieldE+-violationsE+-areE+-detectedE+-duringE+-postgameE+-reviewE+-of
video,E+-whoE+-repeatE+-violationsE+-onE+-theE+-sameE+-gameE+-dayE+-afterE+-havingE+-been
correctedE+- earlier,E+- orE+- whoE+- participateE+- inE+- theE+- gameE+- despiteE+- notE+- having
correctedE+-aE+-violationE+-whenE+-instructedE+-toE+-doE+-so.E+-E+-FirstE+-offensesE+-willE+-result
inE+-fines.
InE+- addition,E+- inE+- accordanceE+- withE+- ArticleE+- 51,E+- SectionE+- 13(c)E+- ofE+- theE+- NFLE!
NFLPAE+-CollectiveE+-BargainingE+-Agreement,E+-allE+-playersE+-willE+-beE+-requiredE+-to
wearE+-aE+-nonE!obtrusiveE+-sensorE+-orE+-GPSE+-trackingE+-deviceE+-duringE+-NFLE+-games.E+-
LeagueE+-disciplineE+-willE+-beE+-imposedE+-onE+-anyE+-playerE+-whoE+-refusesE+-toE+-wear
suchE+-aE+-device,E+-orE+-afterE+-havingE+-suchE+-aE+-deviceE+-affixedE+-toE+-hisE+-equipment,
removesE+-theE+-deviceE+-priorE+-toE+-orE+-duringE+-aE+-game.E+-E+-FirstE+-offensesE+-willE+-result
inE+-fines.
JointE+-App.E+-atE+-384.

15

Nos.E+-15E!2801E+-(L),E+-15E!2805E+-(CON)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33

rejectingE+- theE+- AssociationasE+- argument.E+- E+- SeeE+- YorkE+- ResearchE+- Corp.E+- v.
Landgarten,E+- 927E+- F.2dE+- 119,E+- 122E+- (2dE+- Cir.E+- 1991)E+- (a[A]E+- partyE+- acannot
remainE+- silent,E+- raisingE+- noE+- objectionE+- duringE+- theE+- courseE+- ofE+- the
arbitrationE+-proceeding,E+-andE+-whenE+-anE+-awardE+-adverseE+-toE+-himE+-hasE+-been
handedE+- downE+- complainE+- ofE+- aE+- situationE+- ofE+- whichE+- heE+- hadE+- knowledge
fromE+-theE+-first.aaE+-(quotingE+-CookE+-Indus.,E+-Inc.E+-v.E+-C.E+-ItohE+-&E+-Co.E+-(Am.)E+-Inc.,
449E+- F.2dE+- 106,E+- 107a08E+- (2dE+- Cir.E+- 1971))).E+- E+- WeE+- nonethelessE+- exerciseE+- our
discretionE+-toE+-addressE+-it.E+-E+-WeE+-concludeE+-thatE+-theE+-equipmentE+-provision
doesE+- notE+- applyE+- and,E+- inE+- anyE+- event,E+- theE+- punishmentsE+- listedE+- for
equipmentE+- violationsE+- areE+- minimumE+- onesE+- thatE+- doE+- notE+- foreclose
suspensions.
1.

ApplicabilityE+-ofE+-theE+-PlayerE+-Policies

E+-TheE+-AssociationE+-primarilyE+-reliesE+-onE+-aE+-statementE+-inE+-theE+-aOther
Uniform/EquipmentE+- ViolationsaE+- section,E+- whichE+- providesE+- thatE+- aFirst
offensesE+- willE+- resultE+- inE+- fines.aE+- E+- ItE+- arguesE+- thatE+- equipmentE+- violations
includeE+- aballE+- orE+- equipmentE+- tamperingaE+- andE+- aequipmentE+- tampering
suchE+- asE+- ballE+- deflation.aE+- E+- ButE+- theE+- AssociationE+- findsE+- languageE+- inE+- the
aOtherE+- Uniform/EquipmentE+- ViolationsaE+- provisionE+- thatE+- weE+- cannot
locate.E+- E+- TheE+- provisionE+- saysE+- nothingE+- aboutE+- tamperingE+- with,E+- orE+- the
preparationE+- of,E+- footballsE+- and,E+- indeed,E+- doesE+- notE+- mentionE+- theE+- words
atampering,aE+- aball,aE+- orE+- adeflationaE+- atE+- all.E+- E+- Moreover,E+- thereE+- isE+- no
otherE+-provisionE+-ofE+-theE+-PlayerE+-PoliciesE+-thatE+-refersE+-toE+-ballE+-orE+-equipment
tampering,E+- despiteE+- anE+- extensiveE+- listE+- ofE+- uniformE+- andE+- equipment
violationsE+-rangingE+-fromE+-theE+-lengthE+-ofE+-aE+-playerasE+-stockingsE+-toE+-theE+-color
ofE+-hisE+-wristbands.E+-
OnE+- theE+- otherE+- hand,E+- ArticleE+- 46E+- givesE+- theE+- CommissionerE+- broad
authorityE+- toE+- dealE+- withE+- conductE+- heE+- believesE+- mightE+- undermineE+- the
integrityE+-ofE+-theE+-game.E+-E+-TheE+-CommissionerE+-properlyE+-understoodE+-that
aE+-seriesE+-ofE+-rulesE+-relatingE+-toE+-uniformsE+-andE+-equipmentE+-doesE+-notE+-repeal
hisE+-authorityE+-vestedE+-inE+-himE+-byE+-theE+-AssociationE+-toE+-protectE+-professional
footballE+- fromE+- detrimentalE+- conduct.E+- WeE+- haveE+- littleE+- difficultyE+- in
concludingE+- thatE+- theE+- CommissionerasE+- decisionE+- toE+- disciplineE+- Brady
pursuantE+- toE+- ArticleE+- 46E+- wasE+- aplausiblyE+- groundedE+- inE+- theE+- partiesa
16

Nos.E+-15E!2801E+-(L),E+-15E!2805E+-(CON)

1
2

agreement,aE+-whichE+-isE+-allE+-theE+-lawE+-requires.E+-E+-SeeE+-Wackenhut,E+-126E+-F.3dE+-at
32.
2.

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

2014E+-ScheduleE+-ofE+-Fines

EvenE+- wereE+- theE+- districtE+- courtE+- andE+- theE+- AssociationE+- correct,E+- and
theyE+- areE+- not,E+- thatE+- BradyE+- couldE+- beE+- punishedE+- onlyE+- pursuantE+- toE+- the
PlayerE+- PoliciesE+- andE+- itsE+- aOtherE+- Uniform/EquipmentE+- Violationsa
provision,E+- itE+- wouldE+- notE+- followE+- thatE+- theE+- onlyE+- availableE+- punishment
wouldE+- haveE+- beenE+- aE+- fine.E+- E+- WhileE+- theE+- PlayerE+- PoliciesE+- doE+- specifyE+- that,
withE+- regardE+- toE+- aOtherE+- Uniform/EquipmentE+- Violations,aE+- a[f]irst
offensesE+- willE+- resultE+- inE+- fines,aE+- theE+- 2014E+- ScheduleE+- ofE+- Fines,E+- which
appearsE+- fiveE+- pagesE+- laterE+- andE+- detailsE+- theE+- finesE+- forE+- theseE+- violations,
makesE+-clearE+-thatE+-theE+-a[f]inesE+-listedE+-belowE+-areE+-minimums.aE+-E+-JointE+-App.
atE+- 384,E+- 389.E+- E+- TheE+- ScheduleE+- ofE+- FinesE+- goesE+- onE+- toE+- specifyE+- thatE+- a[o]ther
formsE+-ofE+-discipline,E+-includingE+-higherE+-finesE+-andE+-suspensionE+-mayE+-also
beE+-imposed,E+-basedE+-onE+-theE+-circumstancesE+-ofE+-theE+-particularE+-violation.aE+-
JointE+-App.E+-atE+-389.E+-E+-ReadE+-inE+-conjunction,E+-theseE+-provisionsE+-makeE+-clear
thatE+- evenE+- firstE+- offendersE+- areE+- notE+- exemptE+- fromE+- punishment,E+- and
seriousE+- violationsE+- mayE+- resultE+- inE+- suspension.E+- E+- ButE+- evenE+- ifE+- other
readingsE+- wereE+- plausible,E+- theE+- CommissionerasE+- interpretationE+- ofE+- this
provisionE+- asE+- allowingE+- forE+- aE+- suspensionE+- wouldE+- easilyE+- withstand
judicialE+-scrutinyE+-becauseE+-hisE+-interpretationE+-wouldE+-beE+-atE+-leastE+-abarely
colorable,aE+-which,E+-again,E+-isE+-allE+-thatE+-theE+-lawE+-requires.E+-E+-SeeE+-InE+-reE+-Andros
CompaniaE+-Maritima,E+-S.A.,E+-579E+-F.2dE+-691,E+-704E+-(2dE+-Cir.E+-1978).
B.

SteroidE+-Comparison

TheE+- districtE+- courtE+- alsoE+- tookE+- issueE+- withE+- theE+- comparisonE+- drawn
byE+- theE+- CommissionerE+- betweenE+- BradyasE+- conductE+- andE+- thatE+- ofE+- steroid
users.E+- E+- InE+- hisE+- arbitrationE+- award,E+- theE+- CommissionerE+- notedE+- thatE+- the
fourE!gameE+- suspensionE+- typicallyE+- imposedE+- onE+- firstE!timeE+- steroidE+- users
wasE+- aE+- helpfulE+- pointE+- ofE+- comparisonE+- because,E+- likeE+- BradyasE+- conduct,
asteroidE+- useE+- reflectsE+- anE+- improperE+- effortE+- toE+- secureE+- aE+- competitive
advantageE+- in,E+- andE+- threatensE+- theE+- integrityE+- of,E+- theE+- game.aE+- E+- Special

17

Nos.E+-15E!2801E+-(L),E+-15E!2805E+-(CON)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

App.E+- atE+- 57.E+- E+- FindingE+- suchE+- aE+- comparisonE+- inappropriate,E+- theE+- district
courtE+-held:
[N]oE+- playerE+- allegedE+- orE+- foundE+- toE+- haveE+- hadE+- aE+- general
awarenessE+- ofE+- theE+- inappropriateE+- ballE+- deflationE+- activities
ofE+-othersE+-orE+-whoE+-allegedlyE+-schemedE+-withE+-othersE+-toE+-letE+-air
outE+- ofE+- footballsE+- inE+- aE+- championshipE+- gameE+- andE+- alsoE+- had
notE+- cooperatedE+- inE+- anE+- ensuingE+- investigation,E+- reasonably
couldE+- beE+- onE+- noticeE+- thatE+- theirE+- disciplineE+- wouldE+- (or
should)E+-beE+-theE+-sameE+-asE+-appliedE+-toE+-aE+-playerE+-whoE+-violated
theE+- NFLE+- PolicyE+- onE+- AnabolicE+- SteroidsE+- andE+- Related
Substances.
NatalE+- FootballE+- League,E+- 125E+- F.E+- Supp.E+- 3dE+- atE+- 465.E+- E+- TheE+- Association
approachesE+- thisE+- comparisonE+- somewhatE+- differently,E+- contendingE+- that
theE+- CommissionerasE+- failureE+- toE+- punishE+- BradyE+- pursuantE+- toE+- theE+- Player
PoliciesE+-aisE+-onlyE+-underscoredE+-byE+-hisE+-relianceE+-onE+-theE+-SteroidE+-Policy.aE+-
AppelleesaE+-Br.E+-45.
WeE+- areE+- notE+- troubledE+- byE+- theE+- CommissionerasE+- analogy.E+- E+- If
deferenceE+-meansE+-anything,E+-itE+-meansE+-thatE+-theE+-arbitratorE+-isE+-entitledE+-to
generousE+- latitudeE+- inE+- phrasingE+- hisE+- conclusions.E+- E+- WeE+- haveE+- little
difficultyE+- concludingE+- thatE+- theE+- comparisonE+- toE+- steroidE+- usersE+- neither
violatedE+-aE+-arightaE+-toE+-whichE+-BradyE+-wasE+-entitledE+-norE+-deprivedE+-himE+-of
notice.E+- E+- WhileE+- heE+- mayE+- haveE+- beenE+- entitledE+- toE+- noticeE+- ofE+- hisE+- rangeE+- of
punishment,E+-itE+-doesE+-notE+-followE+-thatE+-heE+-wasE+-entitledE+-toE+-advanceE+-notice
ofE+- theE+- analogiesE+- theE+- arbitratorE+- mightE+- findE+- persuasiveE+- inE+- selectingE+- a
punishmentE+-withinE+-thatE+-range.E+-E+-
TheE+- dissentE+- contendsE+- thatE+- weE+- mustE+- vacateE+- theE+- awardE+- because
theE+- CommissionerE+- failedE+- toE+- discussE+- aE+- policyE+- regardingE+- astickum,a
whichE+- theE+- dissentE+- viewsE+- asE+- aaE+- naturalE+- startingE+- pointE+- forE+- assessing
BradyasE+- penalty.aE+- E+- DissentingE+- Op.E+- atE+- 7.E+- E+- WeE+- doE+- notE+- believeE+- this
contentionE+- isE+- consistentE+- withE+- ourE+- obligationE+- toE+- affordE+- arbitrators
substantialE+- deference,E+- andE+- byE+- suggestingE+- thatE+- theE+- stickumE+- policyE+- is
theE+-moreE+-appropriateE+-analogy,E+-theE+-dissentE+-improperlyE+-weighsE+-inE+-onE+-a
18

Nos.E+-15E!2801E+-(L),E+-15E!2805E+-(CON)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

pureE+- sportsE+- questionawhetherE+- usingE+- stickumE+- byE+- oneE+- playerE+- is
similarE+-toE+-tamperingE+-withE+-footballsE+-usedE+-onE+-everyE+-play.E+-E+-AndE+-evenE+-if
theE+- fineE+- forE+- stickumE+- useE+- isE+- theE+- mostE+- appropriateE+- analogyE+- toE+- Bradyas
conduct,E+- nothingE+- inE+- theE+- CBAE+- orE+- ourE+- caseE+- lawE+- demandsE+- thatE+- the
arbitratorE+- discussE+- comparableE+- conductE+- merelyE+- becauseE+- weE+- findE+- that
analogyE+- moreE+- persuasiveE+- thanE+- others,E+- orE+- becauseE+- weE+- thinkE+- the
analogyE+-theE+-arbitratorE+-choseE+-toE+-drawE+-wasE+-aflawedaE+-orE+-ainapt.a8E+-E+-Nor
doesE+-theE+-CBAE+-requireE+-theE+-arbitratorE+-toE+-afullyE+-explainE+-hisE+-reasoning,a
DissentingE+- Op.E+- atE+- 6;E+- itE+- merelyE+- mandatesE+- thatE+- theE+- hearingE+- officer
renderE+- aE+- awrittenE+- decision,aE+- JointE+- App.E+- atE+- 346.E+- E+- TheE+- Commissioner
notE+- onlyE+- didE+- justE+- that,E+- butE+- heE+- alsoE+- explainedE+- whyE+- heE+- foundE+- the
analogyE+- toE+- steroidE+- useE+- persuasive.E+- E+- NotE+- evenE+- theE+- AssociationE+- finds
defectE+- inE+- theE+- awardE+- onE+- thisE+- pointathisE+- argumentE+- wasE+- neverE+- raised
byE+-theE+-Association,E+-eitherE+-belowE+-orE+-onE+-appeal.E+-E+-WhileE+-weE+-appreciate
thatE+- ourE+- dissentingE+- colleagueE+- mightE+- viewE+- theE+- penaltyE+- metedE+- outE+- to
BradyE+- asE+- harsh,E+- weE+- doE+- notE+- believeE+- thatE+- viewE+- suppliesE+- aE+- sufficient
basisE+-toE+-warrantE+-vacatur.
Accordingly,E+- weE+- believeE+- theE+- CommissionerE+- wasE+- withinE+- his
discretionE+-inE+-drawingE+-aE+-helpful,E+-ifE+-somewhatE+-imperfect,E+-comparison
toE+- steroidE+- users.E+- E+- InE+- anyE+- event,E+- weE+- believeE+- thisE+- issueE+- isE+- muchE+- ado
aboutE+-veryE+-littleE+-becauseE+-theE+-CommissionerE+-couldE+-haveE+-imposedE+-the
sameE+-suspensionE+-withoutE+-referenceE+-toE+-theE+-LeagueasE+-steroidE+-policy.E+-
C.

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

GeneralE+-Awareness

TheE+- districtE+- courtE+- alsoE+- concludedE+- thatE+- theE+- awardE+- wasE+- invalid
becauseE+-a[n]oE+-NFLE+-policyE+-orE+-precedentE+-providedE+-noticeE+-thatE+-aE+-player
couldE+- beE+- subjectE+- toE+- disciplineE+- forE+- generalE+- awarenessE+- ofE+- another
personasE+-allegedE+-misconduct.aE+-E+-NatalE+-FootballE+-League,E+-125E+-F.E+-Supp.E+-3d
atE+- 466.E+- E+- ThisE+- conclusionE+- misapprehendsE+- theE+- record.E+- E+- TheE+- awardE+- is
clearE+- thatE+- itE+- confirmedE+- BradyasE+- disciplineE+- notE+- becauseE+- ofE+- aE+- general
awarenessE+- ofE+- misconductE+- onE+- theE+- partE+- ofE+- others,E+- butE+- becauseE+- Brady
8

E+-ThisE+-isE+-especiallyE+-trueE+-hereE+-givenE+-that,E+-despiteE+-knowingE+-thatE+-BradyE+-hadE+-been
suspendedE+-fourE+-games,E+-theE+-AssociationE+-neverE+-attemptedE+-toE+-drawE+-anE+-analogyE+-toE+-the
punishmentE+-forE+-stickumE+-users.

19

Nos.E+-15E!2801E+-(L),E+-15E!2805E+-(CON)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33

bothE+- aparticipatedE+- inE+- aE+- schemeE+- toE+- tamperE+- withE+- gameE+- ballsaE+- and
awillfullyE+- obstructedE+- theE+- investigationE+- byE+- .E+- .E+- .E+- arrangingE+- for
destructionE+-ofE+-hisE+-cellphone.aE+-E+-SpecialE+-App.E+-atE+-54.E+-E+-
TheE+- AssociationE+- takesE+- aE+- somewhatE+- differentE+- tackE+- andE+- argues
thatE+- theE+- CommissionerE+- wasE+- boundE+- toE+- theE+- WellsE+- ReportasE+- limited
conclusionE+- thatE+- BradyE+- wasE+- atE+- leastE+- agenerallyE+- awareaE+- ofE+- the
inappropriateE+- activitiesE+- ofE+- PatriotsE+- equipmentE+- staff.E+- E+- ButE+- the
AssociationE+- offersE+- noE+- persuasiveE+- supportE+- forE+- itsE+- contentionE+- thatE+- the
universeE+- ofE+- factsE+- theE+- CommissionerE+- couldE+- properlyE+- considerE+- was
limitedE+- byE+- theE+- WellsE+- Report.E+- E+- NothingE+- inE+- ArticleE+- 46E+- limitsE+- the
authorityE+-ofE+-theE+-arbitratorE+-toE+-examineE+-orE+-reassessE+-theE+-factualE+-basisE+-for
aE+-suspension.E+-E+-InE+-fact,E+-inE+-providingE+-forE+-aE+-hearing,E+-ArticleE+-46E+-strongly
suggestsE+- otherwise.E+- E+- BecauseE+- theE+- pointE+- ofE+- aE+- hearingE+- inE+- any
proceedingE+- isE+- toE+- establishE+- aE+- completeE+- factualE+- record,E+- itE+- wouldE+- be
incoherentE+- toE+- bothE+- authorizeE+- aE+- hearingE+- andE+- atE+- theE+- sameE+- timeE+- insist
thatE+- noE+- newE+- findingsE+- orE+- conclusionsE+- couldE+- beE+- basedE+- onE+- aE+- record
expandedE+-asE+-aE+-consequenceE+-ofE+-aE+-hearing.E+-E+-
Additionally,E+-itE+-wasE+-clearE+-toE+-allE+-partiesE+-thatE+-anE+-importantE+-goal
ofE+- theE+- hearingE+- wasE+- toE+- affordE+- theE+- AssociationE+- theE+- opportunityE+- to
examineE+- theE+- findingsE+- ofE+- theE+- WellsE+- Report,E+- andE+- theE+- Association
availedE+- itselfE+- ofE+- thatE+- opportunity.E+- E+- SeeE+- JointE+- App.E+- atE+- 952E+- (a[W]eE+- are
aboutE+-toE+-tellE+-youE+-whyE+-weE+-thingE+-[sic]E+-theE+-WellsE+-reportE+-isE+-wrongE+-.E+-.E+-.E+-.a;
a[W]eE+- believeE+- youE+- areE+- goingE+- toE+- concludeE+- whenE+- youE+- hearE+- [Bradyas
testimony]E+- thatE+- heE+- isE+- notE+- somebodyE+- whoE+- wasE+- responsibleE+- for
anythingE+- .E+- .E+- .E+- .a),E+- 953E+- (aWhatE+- itE+- turnsE+- outE+- isE+- thereE+- areE+- soE+- many
unknownsE+-whichE+-areE+-inE+-theE+-WellsE+-report.a).E+-E+-InE+-lightE+-ofE+-BradyasE+-effort
toE+- challengeE+- theE+- factualE+- conclusionsE+- ofE+- theE+- WellsE+- ReportE+- by
presentingE+-exculpatoryE+-evidence,E+-itE+-wouldE+-makeE+-littleE+-senseE+-toE+-accept
theE+-AssociationasE+-contentionE+-thatE+-theE+-introductionE+-andE+-consideration
ofE+-inculpatoryE+-evidenceE+-violatesE+-theE+-CommissionerasE+-broadE+-authority
toE+-manageE+-theE+-hearing.
TheE+-issueE+-beforeE+-theE+-CommissionerE+-wasE+-whetherE+-theE+-discipline
imposedE+-onE+-BradyE+-wasE+-warrantedE+-underE+-ArticleE+-46,E+-andE+-thatE+-wasE+-theE+-
20

Nos.E+-15E!2801E+-(L),E+-15E!2805E+-(CON)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33

issueE+- heE+- decided.E+- E+- TheE+- CommissionerE+- didE+- notE+- developE+- aE+- newE+- basis
forE+- theE+- suspension,E+- norE+- didE+- heE+- depriveE+- BradyE+- ofE+- anE+- opportunityE+- to
confrontE+- theE+- caseE+- againstE+- him.E+- E+- WeE+- seeE+- nothingE+- inE+- theE+- CBAE+- that
suggestsE+-thatE+-theE+-CommissionerE+-wasE+-barredE+-fromE+-concluding,E+-based
onE+- informationE+- generatedE+- duringE+- theE+- hearing,E+- thatE+- BradyasE+- conduct
wasE+-moreE+-seriousE+-thanE+-wasE+-initiallyE+-believed.
Moreover,E+-theE+-WellsE+-ReportE+-didE+-notE+-limitE+-itselfE+-toE+-aE+-findingE+-of
ageneralE+-awareness.aE+-E+-ItE+-alsoE+-foundE+-thatE+-aitE+-isE+-unlikelyE+-thatE+-[McNally
andE+- Jastremski]E+- wouldE+- deflateE+- gameE+- ballsE+- withoutE+- Bradyas
knowledgeE+- andE+- approvalaE+- orE+- thatE+- theyE+- awouldE+- personallyE+- and
unilaterallyE+- engageE+- inE+- suchE+- conductE+- inE+- theE+- absenceE+- ofE+- Bradyas
awarenessE+- andE+- consent.aE+- E+- JointE+- App.E+- atE+- 114.E+- E+- TheE+- Commissioneras
shiftE+-fromE+-aknowledgeE+-andE+-approvalaE+-toE+-aparticipationaE+-wasE+-not,E+-as
theE+- AssociationE+- argues,E+- aE+- aquantumE+- leap,aE+- butE+- wasE+- insteadE+- a
reasonableE+-reassessmentE+-ofE+-theE+-factsE+-thatE+-gaveE+-riseE+-toE+-BradyasE+-initial
discipline,E+-supplementedE+-byE+-informationE+-developedE+-atE+-theE+-hearing.E+-E+-
UnpromptedE+- byE+- theE+- Association,E+- ourE+- dissentingE+- colleague
contendsE+-thatE+-becauseE+-theE+-WellsE+-ReportE+-aneverE+-concludedE+-thatE+-itE+-was
amoreE+- probableE+- thanE+- notaE+- thatE+- theE+- giftsE+- BradyE+- providedE+- were
intendedE+-asE+-rewardsE+-orE+-advanceE+- paymentsE+-forE+-deflatingE+-footballsE+-in
violationE+- ofE+- LeagueE+- Rules,aE+- DissentingE+- Op.E+- atE+- 3,E+- theE+- Commissioner
deprivedE+- BradyE+- ofE+- noticeE+- byE+- concludingE+- thatE+- heE+- aprovided
inducementsE+-andE+-rewardsE+-inE+-supportE+-ofE+-[the]E+-scheme,aE+-SpecialE+-App.
atE+-51.E+-E+-
ButE+- theE+- WellsE+- ReportE+- wasE+- clearE+- thatE+- itsE+- conclusionE+- was
asignificantlyE+- influencedE+- byE+- theE+- substantialE+- numberE+- of
communicationsE+- andE+- eventsE+- consistentE+- withE+- [its]E+- finding,E+- including
thatE+- [McNally]E+- .E+- .E+- .E+- receivedE+- valuableE+- itemsE+- autographedE+- byE+- Tom
BradyE+-theE+-weekE+-beforeE+-theE+-AFCE+-ChampionshipE+-Game.aE+-E+-JointE+-App.E+-at
108.E+-E+-WithE+-specificE+-regardE+-toE+-BradyasE+-involvement,E+-theE+-WellsE+-Report
notedE+-thatE+-aBradyE+-[was]E+-aE+-constantE+-referenceE+-pointE+-inE+-theE+-discussions
betweenE+- McNallyE+- andE+- JastremskiE+- aboutE+- .E+- .E+- .E+- itemsE+- toE+- beE+- receivedE+- by
McNally.aE+- E+- JointE+- App.E+- atE+- 112a13.E+- E+- AndE+- asE+- theE+- dissentE+- admits,E+- the
21

Nos.E+-15E!2801E+-(L),E+-15E!2805E+-(CON)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

AssociationE+-questionedE+-BradyE+-atE+-theE+-hearingE+-onE+-thisE+-veryE+-point,E+-and
theE+- CommissionerE+- determinedE+- thatE+- BradyasE+- testimonyE+- wasE+- not
credible.E+- E+- TheE+- recordE+- establishesE+- thatE+- BradyE+- wasE+- onE+- noticeE+- fromE+- the
outsetE+- thatE+- theE+- WellsE+- ReportasE+- conclusionsE+- wereE+- asignificantly
influencedaE+- byE+- hisE+- providingE+- McNally9E+- withE+- autographed
memorabilia,E+- theE+- AssociationE+- confrontedE+- thisE+- allegationE+- atE+- the
hearing,E+-andE+-theE+-CommissionerE+-rejectedE+-BradyasE+-explanation.E+-E+-Brady
knewE+-thatE+-theE+-factualE+-predicatesE+-ofE+-hisE+-disciplineE+-(theE+-textE+-messages,
theE+- phoneE+- calls,E+- theE+- autographedE+- memorabilia,E+- etc.)E+- wouldE+- beE+- at
issueE+- inE+- theE+- arbitration.E+- E+- ThatE+- heE+- choseE+- toE+- focusE+- onE+- someE+- moreE+- than
othersE+-simplyE+-reflectsE+-hisE+-ownE+-tacticalE+-decisionE+-asE+-toE+-howE+-toE+-present
hisE+-case.E+-E+-AndE+-again,E+-theE+-AssociationE+-neverE+-putE+-forthE+-thisE+-contention,
eitherE+-beforeE+-usE+-orE+-inE+-theE+-districtE+-courtE+-below.
WeE+- thereforeE+- findE+- thatE+- theE+- CommissionerE+- wasE+- withinE+- his
discretionE+- toE+- concludeE+- thatE+- BradyE+- hadE+- aparticipatedE+- inE+- aE+- schemeE+- to
tamperE+- withE+- gameE+- balls.aE+- E+- BecauseE+- theE+- partiesE+- agreeE+- thatE+- such
conductE+- isE+- aconductE+- detrimental,aE+- theE+- districtE+- courtE+- erredE+- in
concludingE+- thatE+- theE+- CommissionerasE+- deviationE+- fromE+- theE+- Wells
ReportasE+-findingE+-ofE+-generalE+-awarenessE+-wasE+-aE+-groundE+-forE+-vacatur.
D.

20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

DisciplineE+-forE+-NonE!cooperation

TheE+- districtE+- courtE+- heldE+- andE+- theE+- AssociationE+- contendsE+- that
BradyasE+- suspensionE+- cannotE+- beE+- sustainedE+- onE+- theE+- groundsE+- thatE+- he
obstructedE+- theE+- CommissionerasE+- investigation.E+- E+- TheE+- courtE+- reasoned
thatE+- a[n]oE+- playerE+- suspensionE+- inE+- NFLE+- historyE+- hasE+- beenE+- sustainedE+- for
anE+- allegedE+- failureE+- toE+- cooperateE+- withaorE+- evenE+- allegedly
obstructingaanE+- NFLE+- investigation.aE+- E+- NatalE+- FootballE+- League,E+- 125E+- F.
Supp.E+-3dE+-atE+-465E+-(internalE+-quotationE+-marksE+-omitted).E+-E+-TheE+-League,E+-on
theE+-otherE+-hand,E+-arguesE+-thatE+-notE+-onlyE+-isE+-theE+-deliberateE+-obstructionE+-ofE+-a
leagueE+- investigationE+- aconductE+- detrimentalaE+- withinE+- theE+- meaningE+- of
ArticleE+- 46,E+- butE+- alsoE+- theE+- destructionE+- ofE+- theE+- cellE+- phoneE+- permittedE+- the

9

E+-TheE+-CommissionerE+-neverE+-referencedE+-theE+-giftsE+-JastremskiE+-receivedE+-fromE+-Brady.

22

Nos.E+-15E!2801E+-(L),E+-15E!2805E+-(CON)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

CommissionerE+- toE+- drawE+- anE+- adverseE+- inferenceE+- againstE+- BradyE+- that
supportedE+-theE+-findingE+-thatE+-heE+-participatedE+-inE+-theE+-deflationE+-scheme.
TheE+- AssociationasE+- argumentE+- isE+- essentiallyE+- procedural.E+- E+- The
AssociationE+- doesE+- notE+- disputeE+- thatE+- theE+- CommissionerE+- properlyE+- used
theE+- destructionE+- ofE+- theE+- cellE+- phoneE+- toE+- drawE+- anE+- adverseE+- inference
againstE+-Brady.E+-E+-InE+-theE+-faceE+-ofE+-thisE+-concession,E+-theE+-AssociationE+-insists
thatE+- becauseE+- theE+- awardE+- isE+- invalidE+- inE+- lightE+- ofE+- theE+- Commissioneras
failureE+- toE+- disciplineE+- BradyE+- underE+- theE+- PlayerE+- Policies,E+- theE+- award
cannotE+-beE+-salvagedE+-onE+-theE+-alternativeE+-theoryE+-thatE+-BradyE+-couldE+-have
beenE+-suspendedE+-forE+-hisE+-obstructionE+-ofE+-theE+-investigation.E+-E+-Specifically,
theE+- AssociationE+- contendsE+- thatE+- aonceE+- itE+- becomesE+- clearE+- thatE+- Bradyas
nonE!cooperationE+- ledE+- toE+- theE+- adverseE+- inferenceE+- aboutE+- ballE+- tampering,
itasE+-backE+-toE+-squareE+-one:E+-TheE+-onlyE+-penaltyE+-ofE+-whichE+-BradyE+-hadE+-notice
wasE+- theE+- collectivelyE+- bargainedE+- fineE+- forE+- equipmentE+- violations.aE+-
AppelleesaE+-Br.E+-51.E+-E+-ThisE+-argumentE+-failsE+-forE+-theE+-simpleE+-reasonE+-that,E+-as
weE+- haveE+- explained,E+- theE+- PlayerE+- PoliciesE+- areE+- inapplicableE+- and,E+- inE+- any
event,E+- suspensionsE+- mayE+- beE+- imposedE+- forE+- violationsE+- ofE+- theE+- Leagueas
equipmentE+-policies.
AtE+- oralE+- argument,E+- theE+- AssociationE+- contended,E+- forE+- theE+- first
time,E+-thatE+-BradyE+-hadE+-noE+-noticeE+-thatE+-theE+-destructionE+-ofE+-theE+-cellE+-phone
wouldE+- evenE+- beE+- atE+- issueE+- inE+- theE+- arbitrationE+- proceeding.10E+- E+- Ordinarily,
anE+- argumentE+- suchE+- asE+- thisE+- thatE+- isE+- notE+- raisedE+- inE+- theE+- briefsE+- isE+- waived
andE+- thusE+- notE+- appropriateE+- forE+- considerationE+- onE+- appeal.E+- E+- LittlejohnE+- v.
CityE+- ofE+- NewE+- York,E+- 795E+- F.3dE+- 297,E+- 313E+- n.12E+- (2dE+- Cir.E+- 2015).E+- E+- However,
becauseE+- theE+- partiesE+- discussedE+- thisE+- issueE+- atE+- lengthE+- duringE+- oral
argument,E+-weE+-exerciseE+-ourE+-discretionE+-toE+-addressE+-it.
ForE+- aE+- numberE+- ofE+- reasons,E+- theE+- AssociationasE+- assertionE+- that
BradyE+-lackedE+-noticeE+-thatE+-theE+-destructionE+-ofE+-theE+-cellE+-phoneE+-wouldE+-be
10

E+-ByE+-contrast,E+-inE+-itsE+-brief,E+-theE+-AssociationE+-arguedE+-onlyE+-thatE+-aBradyE+-hadE+-noE+-noticeE+-thatE+-he
couldE+-beE+-suspendedE+-forE+-decliningE+-toE+-produceE+-hisE+-privateE+-communications.aE+-E+-Appelleesa
Br.E+-51.E+-E+-BecauseE+-theE+-partiesE+-agreeE+-thatE+-theE+-CommissionerE+-properlyE+-drewE+-anE+-adverse
inferenceE+-basedE+-onE+-theE+-destructionE+-ofE+-theE+-cellE+-phone,E+-weE+-needE+-notE+-confrontE+-this
argument.

23

Nos.E+-15E!2801E+-(L),E+-15E!2805E+-(CON)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

anE+- issueE+- inE+- theE+- arbitrationE+- hasE+- noE+- supportE+- inE+- theE+- record.E+- E+- The
LeagueasE+- letterE+- toE+- BradyE+- notifyingE+- himE+- ofE+- hisE+- suspensionE+- pointedE+- to
BradyasE+- afailureE+- toE+- cooperateE+- fullyE+- andE+- candidlyE+- withE+- the
investigation,E+- includingE+- byE+- refusingE+- toE+- produceE+- anyE+- relevant
electronicE+-evidenceE+-(emails,E+-texts,E+-etc.).aE+-E+-JointE+-App.E+-atE+-329.E+-E+-Having
beenE+- givenE+- clearE+- noticeE+- thatE+- hisE+- cooperationE+- withE+- theE+- investigation
wasE+-aE+-subjectE+-ofE+-significantE+-interest,E+-weE+-haveE+-difficultyE+-believingE+-that
eitherE+-BradyE+-orE+-theE+-AssociationE+-wouldE+-haveE+-beenE+-surprisedE+-thatE+-the
destructionE+- ofE+- theE+- cellE+- phoneE+- wasE+- ofE+- importanceE+- toE+- the
Commissioner.E+- E+- TheE+- notionE+- thatE+- BradyE+- wasE+- unfairlyE+- blindsidedE+- by
theE+- CommissionerasE+- adverseE+- inferenceE+- isE+- furtherE+- beliedE+- byE+- the
openingE+- statementE+- ofE+- theE+- AssociationasE+- counselE+- atE+- theE+- arbitration,
whoE+-defendedE+-BradyasE+-handlingE+-ofE+-electronicE+-evidence:
WeE+- areE+- alsoE+- goingE+- toE+- putE+- inE+- a
declarationE+- fromE+- aE+- forensicE+- personE+- who
dealtE+- withE+- theE+- issueE+- ofE+- eE!mailE+- andE+- texts.E+-
AndE+- youE+- knowE+- fromE+- yourE+- decisionE+- that
[this]E+-wasE+-anE+-aspectE+-ofE+-theE+-discipline.E+-.E+-.E+-.E+-
.E+-.E+-.E+-.
[T]hereE+- wereE+- noE+- incriminatingE+- texts
beingE+- withheldE+- orE+- eE!mails,E+- andE+- thereE+- never
haveE+- beenE+- anyE+- incriminatingE+- textsE+- orE+- eE!
mails.E+- E+- AndE+- nowE+- heE+- hasE+- goneE+- throughE+- and
producesE+-exactlyE+-whatE+-TedE+-WellsE+-hadE+-asked
forE+- atE+- theE+- timeE+- thatE+- existedE+- atE+- theE+- timeE+- and
existsE+-today.
.E+- .E+- .E+- HeE+- wasE+- followingE+- theE+- adviceE+- of
hisE+-lawyersE+-andE+-agentsE+-atE+-theE+-time.E+-E+-
JointE+- App.E+- atE+- 953.E+- E+- CounselE+- forE+- theE+- AssociationE+- laterE+- wentE+- further,
directlyE+- acknowledgingE+- theE+- destructionE+- ofE+- theE+- cellE+- phoneE+- and
referencingE+- anE+- expertE+- declarationE+- submittedE+- inE+- supportE+- ofE+- Brady.E+-
WhateverE+-itE+-mayE+-sayE+-nowE+-aboutE+-itsE+-expectationsE+-forE+-theE+-hearing,E+-the
24

Nos.E+-15E!2801E+-(L),E+-15E!2805E+-(CON)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33

AssociationE+-hadE+-atE+-leastE+-enoughE+-noticeE+-ofE+-theE+-potentialE+-consequences
ofE+- theE+- cellE+- phoneE+- destructionE+- toE+- retainE+- anE+- expertE+- inE+- advanceE+- ofE+- the
arbitrationE+-toE+-assistE+-counselE+-inE+-explainingE+-whyE+-anE+-adverseE+-inference
shouldE+-notE+-beE+-drawn.
AtE+- oralE+- argument,E+- theE+- AssociationE+- furtherE+- contendedE+- thatE+- the
CommissionerE+- wasE+- improperlyE+- punishingE+- BradyE+- forE+- destroyingE+- his
cellE+- phoneE+- becauseE+- heE+- wasE+- requiredE+- toE+- instituteE+- aE+- newE+- disciplinary
actionE+- (soE+- thatE+- BradyE+- couldE+- thenE+- appealE+- anyE+- determinationE+- thatE+- he
hadE+- destroyedE+- hisE+- cellE+- phone).E+- E+- ThisE+- argumentE+- failsE+- because,E+- asE+- set
forthE+- inE+- theE+- originalE+- disciplinaryE+- letter,E+- BradyE+- wasE+- punishedE+- for
failingE+-toE+-cooperate,E+-andE+-itE+-isE+-clearE+-fromE+-theE+-CommissionerasE+-decision
thatE+- BradyasE+- cellE+- phoneE+- destructionE+- wasE+- partE+- andE+- parcelE+- ofE+- the
broaderE+-claimE+-thatE+-heE+-hadE+-failedE+-toE+-cooperate.E+-E+-Further,E+-asE+-weE+-stated
withE+- regardE+- toE+- generalE+- awareness,E+- nothingE+- inE+- ArticleE+- 46E+- limitsE+- the
arbitratorasE+-authorityE+-toE+-reexamineE+-theE+-factualE+-basisE+-forE+-aE+-suspension
byE+- conductingE+- aE+- hearing.E+- E+- Additionally,E+- theE+- CommissionerE+- didE+- not
increaseE+- theE+- punishmentE+- asE+- aE+- consequenceE+- ofE+- theE+- destructionE+- ofE+- the
cellE+- phoneatheE+- fourE!gameE+- suspensionE+- wasE+- notE+- increased.E+- E+- Rather,
theE+- cellE+- phoneE+- destructionE+- merelyE+- providedE+- furtherE+- supportE+- forE+- the
CommissionerasE+- determinationE+- thatE+- BradyE+- hadE+- failedE+- toE+- cooperate,
andE+- servedE+- asE+- theE+- basisE+- forE+- anE+- adverseE+- inferenceE+- asE+- toE+- his
participationE+-inE+-theE+-schemeE+-toE+-deflateE+-footballs.
Finally,E+- anyE+- reasonableE+- litigantE+- wouldE+- understandE+- thatE+- the
destructionE+- ofE+- evidence,E+- revealedE+- justE+- daysE+- beforeE+- theE+- startE+- of
arbitrationE+- proceedings,E+- wouldE+- beE+- anE+- importantE+- issue.E+- E+- ItE+- isE+- well
establishedE+- thatE+- theE+- lawE+- permitsE+- aE+- trierE+- ofE+- factE+- toE+- inferE+- thatE+- aE+- party
whoE+- deliberatelyE+- destroysE+- relevantE+- evidenceE+- theE+- partyE+- hadE+- an
obligationE+- toE+- produceE+- didE+- soE+- inE+- orderE+- toE+- concealE+- damaging
informationE+-fromE+-theE+-adjudicator.E+-E+-See,E+-e.g.,E+-ResidentialE+-FundingE+-Corp.
v.E+- DeGeorgeE+- Fin.E+- Corp.,E+- 306E+- F.3dE+- 99,E+- 106a07E+- (2dE+- Cir.E+- 2002);E+- ByrnieE+- v.
TownE+- ofE+- Cromwell,E+- 243E+- F.3dE+- 93,E+- 107a12E+- (2dE+- Cir.E+- 2001);E+- KronischE+- v.
UnitedE+- States,E+- 150E+- F.3dE+- 112,E+- 126E+- (2dE+- Cir.E+- 1998).E+- E+- TheseE+- principlesE+- are
sufficientlyE+- settledE+- thatE+- thereE+- isE+- noE+- needE+- forE+- anyE+- specificE+- mentionE+- of
25

Nos.E+-15E!2801E+-(L),E+-15E!2805E+-(CON)

1
2

themE+- inE+- aE+- collectiveE+- agreement,E+- andE+- weE+- areE+- confidentE+- thatE+- their
applicationE+-cameE+-asE+-noE+-surpriseE+-toE+-BradyE+-orE+-theE+-Association.
E.

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

CompetitiveE+-IntegrityE+-Policy

TheE+- finalE+- groundE+- forE+- vacaturE+- dueE+- toE+- inadequateE+- notice
identifiedE+-byE+-theE+-districtE+-courtE+-wasE+-BradyasE+-purportedE+-lackE+-ofE+-notice
ofE+- theE+- CompetitiveE+- IntegrityE+- Policy,E+- whichE+- authorizedE+- theE+- initial
investigation.E+- E+- TheE+- districtE+- courtE+- reasonedE+- thatE+- BradyE+- was
improperlyE+-suspendedE+-pursuantE+-toE+-theE+-CompetitiveE+-IntegrityE+-Policy,
whichE+- isE+- distributedE+- onlyE+- toE+- teams,E+- andE+- notE+- toE+- players.E+- E+- This
conclusionE+-isE+-incorrectE+-because,E+-asE+-weE+-haveE+-seen,E+-ArticleE+-46E+-properly
suppliedE+-theE+-basisE+-forE+-theE+-suspension.
Tellingly,E+- theE+- AssociationE+- doesE+- notE+- defendE+- theE+- districtE+- courtas
analysisE+- onE+- appeal.E+- E+- TheE+- LeagueE+- inE+- itsE+- initialE+- punishmentE+- andE+- the
CommissionerE+- inE+- hisE+- arbitrationE+- awardE+- wereE+- bothE+- clearE+- thatE+- Brady
wasE+- beingE+- disciplinedE+- pursuantE+- toE+- ArticleE+- 46,E+- notE+- theE+- Competitive
IntegrityE+- Policy.11E+- E+- TheE+- CompetitiveE+- IntegrityE+- Policy,E+- whichE+- says
nothingE+- aboutE+- discipliningE+- players,E+- merelyE+- suppliedE+- the
CommissionerE+-withE+-theE+-authorityE+-toE+-conductE+-anE+-investigationE+-andE+-to
requireE+-theE+-PatriotsaE+-cooperation.E+-E+-TheE+-operativeE+-questionE+-forE+-notice,
asE+- theE+- partiesE+- agree,E+- isE+- whetherE+- BradyE+- wasE+- awareE+- thatE+- hisE+- conduct
couldE+-giveE+-riseE+-toE+-aE+-suspension.E+-E+-ArticleE+-46E+-putE+-himE+-onE+-noticeE+-priorE+-to
theE+- AFCE+- ChampionshipE+- GameE+- thatE+- anyE+- actionE+- deemedE+- byE+- the
CommissionerE+- toE+- beE+- aconductE+- detrimentalaE+- couldE+- leadE+- toE+- his
suspension.12
11

E+-SeeE+-JointE+-App.E+-atE+-329a30E+-(explainingE+-twiceE+-thatE+-theE+-sourceE+-ofE+-theE+-disciplineE+-wasE+-the
CommissionerasE+-authorityE+-underE+-aArticleE+-46E+-ofE+-theE+-CBAa);E+-SpecialE+-App.E+-atE+-58a59E+-n.19
(aAsE+-theE+-disciplineE+-letterE+-makesE+-clear,E+-Mr.E+-BradyE+-wasE+-suspendedE+-forE+-conduct
detrimentalE+-toE+-theE+-integrityE+-ofE+-andE+-publicE+-confidenceE+-inE+-theE+-gameE+-ofE+-professional
football,E+-notE+-forE+-aE+-violationE+-ofE+-theE+-[CompetitiveE+-IntegrityE+-Policy].a).
12
E+-TheE+-dissentE+-emphasizesE+-atE+-variousE+-pointsE+-thatE+-BradyasE+-fourE!gameE+-suspensionE+-was
aunprecedented.aE+-E+-E.g.,E+-DissentingE+-Op.E+-atE+-1,E+-6,E+-9.E+-E+-ButE+-determiningE+-theE+-severityE+-ofE+-a
penaltyE+-isE+-anE+-archetypalE+-exampleE+-ofE+-aE+-judgmentE+-committedE+-toE+-anE+-arbitratorasE+-discretion.E+-
TheE+-severityE+-ofE+-aE+-penaltyE+-willE+-dependE+-onE+-anyE+-numberE+-ofE+-considerations,E+-includingE+-the
culpabilityE+-ofE+-theE+-individual,E+-theE+-circumstancesE+-ofE+-theE+-misconduct,E+-andE+-theE+-balancingE+-of
interestsE+-inherentlyE+-uniqueE+-inE+-everyE+-workE+-environment.E+-E+-WeighingE+-andE+-applyingE+-these

26

Nos.E+-15E!2801E+-(L),E+-15E!2805E+-(CON)

1

II.

2

PriorE+- toE+- theE+- commencementE+- ofE+- arbitrationE+- proceedings,E+- the
CommissionerE+-deniedE+-theE+-AssociationasE+-motionE+-toE+-callE+-NFLE+-General
CounselE+- JeffE+- PashE+- toE+- testifyE+- atE+- theE+- arbitrationE+- concerningE+- hisE+- roleE+- in
theE+- preparationE+- ofE+- theE+- WellsE+- Report.E+- E+- TheE+- CommissionerE+- didE+- soE+- on
theE+- groundsE+- thatE+- PashE+- didE+- notE+- aplayE+- aE+- substantiveE+- roleE+- inE+- the
investigationaE+- andE+- theE+- WellsE+- ReportE+- madeE+- clearE+- thatE+- itE+- was
apreparedE+- entirelyE+- byE+- theE+- PaulE+- WeissE+- investigativeE+- team.aE+- E+- Special
App.E+-atE+-63.E+-E+-AsE+-anE+-independentE+-groundE+-forE+-vacatur,E+-theE+-districtE+-court
heldE+- thatE+- itE+- wasE+- fundamentallyE+- unfairE+- toE+- excludeE+- PashE+- from
testifyingE+- becauseE+- aitE+- isE+- logicalE+- thatE+- heE+- wouldE+- haveE+- valuableE+- insight
intoE+- theE+- courseE+- andE+- outcomeE+- ofE+- theE+- InvestigationE+- andE+- intoE+- the
draftingE+-andE+-contentE+-ofE+-theE+-WellsE+-Report.aE+-E+-NatalE+-FootballE+-League,E+-125
F.E+-Supp.E+-3dE+-atE+-471.E+-E+-Again,E+-weE+-cannotE+-agreeE+-withE+-thisE+-conclusion.E+-

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

ExclusionE+-ofE+-TestimonyE+-fromE+-NFLE+-GeneralE+-Counsel

ItE+- isE+- wellE+- settledE+- thatE+- proceduralE+- questionsE+- thatE+- ariseE+- during
arbitration,E+- suchE+- asE+- whichE+- witnessesE+- toE+- hearE+- andE+- whichE+- evidenceE+- to
receiveE+- orE+- exclude,E+- areE+- leftE+- toE+- theE+- soundE+- discretionE+- ofE+- theE+- arbitrator
andE+-shouldE+-notE+-beE+-secondE!guessedE+-byE+-theE+-courts.E+-E+-E+-Misco,E+-484E+-U.S.E+-at
40.E+- E+- ArbitratorsE+- doE+- notE+- aneedE+- toE+- complyE+- withE+- strictE+- evidentiary
rules,aE+-andE+-theyE+-possessE+-asubstantialE+-discretionE+-toE+-admitE+-orE+-exclude
evidence.aE+- E+- LJLE+- 33rdE+- St.E+- Assocs.,E+- LLCE+- v.E+- PitcairnE+- Props.E+- Inc.,E+- 725E+- F.3d
184,E+-194a95E+-(2dE+-Cir.E+-2013);E+-seeE+-alsoE+-VoltE+-Info.E+-Scis.,E+-Inc.E+-v.E+-Bd.E+-ofE+-Trs.E+-of
LelandE+-StanfordE+-JuniorE+-Univ.,E+-489E+-U.S.E+-468,E+-476E+-(1989).
However,E+- aE+- narrowE+- exceptionE+- existsE+- underE+- theE+- Federal
ArbitrationE+- ActE+- (aFAAa),E+- whichE+- providesE+- thatE+- anE+- awardE+- mayE+- be
vacatedE+- whereE+- atheE+- arbitratorsE+- wereE+- guiltyE+- ofE+- misconductE+- .E+- .E+- .E+- in
refusingE+-toE+-hearE+-evidenceE+-pertinentE+-andE+-materialE+-toE+-theE+-controversy.aE+-
9E+-U.S.C.E+-ASSE+-10(a)(3).E+-E+-WeE+-haveE+-heldE+-thatE+-vacaturE+-isE+-warrantedE+-inE+-suchE+-a
circumstanceE+-onlyE+-ifE+-afundamentalE+-fairnessE+-isE+-violated.aE+-E+-TempoE+-Shain
Corp.E+- v.E+- Bertek,E+- Inc.,E+- 120E+- F.3dE+- 16,E+- 20E+- (2dE+- Cir.E+- 1997).13E+- E+- ThereE+- isE+- little
factorsE+-isE+-leftE+-notE+-toE+-theE+-courts,E+-butE+-toE+-theE+-soundE+-discretionE+-ofE+-theE+-arbitrator.
13
TheE+-FAAE+-doesE+-notE+-applyE+-toE+-arbitrations,E+-likeE+-thisE+-one,E+-conductedE+-pursuantE+-toE+-the
LMRA,E+-abutE+-theE+-federalE+-courtsE+-haveE+-oftenE+-lookedE+-toE+-theE+-[FAA]E+-forE+-guidanceE+-inE+-labor

27

Nos.E+-15E!2801E+-(L),E+-15E!2805E+-(CON)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

questionE+-thatE+-theE+-exclusionE+-ofE+-theE+-testimonyE+-wasE+-consistentE+-withE+-the
CommissionerasE+-broadE+-authorityE+-toE+-regulateE+-proceduralE+-mattersE+-and
comportedE+- withE+- theE+- CBA.E+- E+- Thus,E+- theE+- CommissionerasE+- rulingE+- canE+- be
revisitedE+-inE+-courtE+-onlyE+-ifE+-itE+-violatedE+-fundamentalE+-fairness,E+-andE+-weE+-see
noE+-suchE+-violation.E+-
TheE+- centralE+- issueE+- inE+- theE+- arbitrationE+- wasE+- whetherE+- BradyE+- had
engagedE+-inE+-conductE+-detrimentalE+-toE+-theE+-League.E+-E+-TheE+-ainsightsaE+-Pash
mightE+- haveE+- hadE+- andE+- theE+- roleE+- heE+- mightE+- haveE+- playedE+- inE+- the
preparationE+-ofE+-theE+-WellsE+-ReportE+-wereE+-concernsE+-thatE+-wereE+-collateralE+-to
theE+-issuesE+-atE+-arbitration.E+-E+-TheE+-CBAE+-doesE+-notE+-requireE+-anE+-independent
investigation,E+-andE+-nothingE+-wouldE+-haveE+-prohibitedE+-theE+-Commissioner
fromE+- usingE+- anE+- inE!houseE+- teamE+- toE+- conductE+- theE+- investigation.E+- E+- The
AssociationE+-andE+-theE+-LeagueE+-bargainedE+-forE+-andE+-agreedE+-inE+-theE+-CBAE+-on
aE+- structureE+- thatE+- lodgedE+- responsibilityE+- forE+- bothE+- investigationE+- and
adjudicationE+-withE+-theE+-LeagueE+-andE+-theE+-Commissioner.E+-E+-Moreover,E+-the
CommissionerE+-madeE+-clearE+-thatE+-theE+-independenceE+-ofE+-theE+-WellsE+-Report
wasE+- notE+- materialE+- toE+- hisE+- decision,E+- thusE+- limitingE+- anyE+- probativeE+- value
theE+-PashE+-testimonyE+-mayE+-haveE+-had.E+-

arbitrationE+-cases.aE+-E+-Misco,E+-484E+-U.S.E+-atE+-40E+-n.9.E+-E+-However,E+-weE+-haveE+-neverE+-heldE+-thatE+-the
requirementE+-ofE+-afundamentalE+-fairnessaE+-appliesE+-toE+-arbitrationE+-awardsE+-underE+-theE+-LMRA,
cf.E+-BellE+-AerospaceE+-Co.E+-Div.E+-ofE+-Textron,E+-Inc.E+-v.E+-LocalE+-516E+-IntalE+-Union,E+-500E+-F.2dE+-921,E+-923E+-(2dE+-Cir.
1974)E+-(applying,E+-withoutE+-explanation,E+-9E+-U.S.C.E+-ASSE+-10(a)(3)E+-(formerlyE+-ASSE+-10(c))E+-toE+-an
arbitrationE+-underE+-theE+-LMRA),E+-andE+-weE+-noteE+-thatE+-theE+-circuitsE+-areE+-dividedE+-onE+-thisE+-question,
compareE+-LippertE+-TileE+-Co.,E+-Inc.E+-v.E+-IntalE+-UnionE+-ofE+-Bricklayers,E+-724E+-F.3dE+-939,E+-948E+-(7thE+-Cir.E+-2013)
(a[LMRA]E+-reviewE+-simplyE+-doesE+-notE+-includeE+-aE+-freeE!floatingE+-proceduralE+-fairnessE+-standard
absentE+-aE+-showingE+-thatE+-someE+-provisionE+-ofE+-theE+-CBAE+-wasE+-violated.a),E+-withE+-CarpentersE+-46E+-N.
Cal.E+-Ctys.E+-ConferenceE+-Bd.E+-v.E+-ZconE+-Builders,E+-96E+-F.3dE+-410,E+-413E+-(9thE+-Cir.E+-1996)E+-(aAlthough
deferenceE+-mustE+-beE+-givenE+-toE+-anE+-arbitratorasE+-decisionsE+-concerningE+-proceduralE+-issues,E+-itE+-is
generallyE+-recognizedE+-thatE+-theE+-courtsE+-mayE+-considerE+-aE+-claimE+-thatE+-aE+-partyE+-toE+-anE+-arbitration
hasE+-beenE+-deniedE+-aE+-fundamentallyE+-fairE+-hearing.a).E+-E+-WhileE+-theE+-LeagueE+-doesE+-notE+-explicitly
disputeE+-theE+-applicabilityE+-ofE+-theE+-afundamentalE+-fairnessaE+-standardE+-here,E+-itE+-alsoE+-doesE+-not
contestE+-theE+-AssociationasE+-argumentsE+-regardingE+-fundamentalE+-unfairness,E+-andE+-instead
onlyE+-arguesE+-thatE+-theE+-CommissionerasE+-proceduralE+-rulingsE+-didE+-notE+-violateE+-theE+-termsE+-ofE+-the
CBA.E+-E+-RegardlessE+-ofE+-whichE+-positionE+-weE+-adopt,E+-ourE+-resultE+-isE+-theE+-same,E+-andE+-thusE+-weE+-need
notE+-decideE+-whetherE+-theE+-afreeE!floatingE+-proceduralE+-fairnessE+-standardaE+-ofE+-theE+-FAAE+-ought
toE+-beE+-importedE+-toE+-ourE+-reviewE+-ofE+-arbitrationsE+-conductedE+-pursuantE+-toE+-theE+-LMRA.

28

Nos.E+-15E!2801E+-(L),E+-15E!2805E+-(CON)

14

InE+- anyE+- event,E+- theE+- CommissionerE+- didE+- receiveE+- extensive
testimonyE+- fromE+- TroyE+- VincentE+- regardingE+- theE+- initiationE+- ofE+- the
investigationE+- andE+- itsE+- initialE+- stages,E+- andE+- fromE+- TheodoreE+- Wells
regardingE+- theE+- investigationE+- itselfE+- andE+- theE+- preparationE+- ofE+- theE+- report.E+-
AllE+-ofE+-thisE+-isE+-compoundedE+-byE+-theE+-factE+-thatE+-whenE+-initiallyE+-denyingE+-the
AssociationasE+- requestE+- toE+- callE+- Pash,E+- theE+- CommissionerE+- notedE+- that
ashouldE+-theE+-partiesE+-presentE+-evidenceE+-showingE+-thatE+-theE+-testimonyE+-ofE+-a
witnessE+- .E+- .E+- .E+- isE+- necessaryE+- forE+- aE+- fullE+- andE+- fairE+- hearing,aE+- heE+- wouldE+- be
willingE+- toE+- arevisitE+- theE+- NFLPAasE+- motionE+- toE+- compelE+- [the]E+- testimony.aE+-
SpecialE+- App.E+- atE+- 64.E+- E+- TheE+- AssociationE+- neverE+- renewedE+- itsE+- objectionE+- or
furtherE+- pursuedE+- theE+- issue.E+- E+- WeE+- thusE+- concludeE+- thatE+- the
CommissionerasE+- decisionE+- toE+- excludeE+- theE+- testimonyE+- fitsE+- comfortably
withinE+-hisE+-broadE+-discretionE+-toE+-admitE+-orE+-excludeE+-evidenceE+-andE+-raises
noE+-questionsE+-ofE+-fundamentalE+-fairness.E+-E+-

15

III.

16

TheE+- districtE+- courtasE+- thirdE+- andE+- finalE+- groundE+- forE+- vacaturE+- isE+- that
BradyE+- wasE+- entitledE+- underE+- theE+- CBAE+- toE+- theE+- interviewE+- notesE+- and
memorandaE+- generatedE+- byE+- theE+- investigativeE+- teamE+- fromE+- Paul,E+- Weiss,
andE+- thatE+- theE+- denialE+- ofE+- thoseE+- notesE+- amountedE+- toE+- fundamental
unfairness.E+-E+-TheE+-LeagueE+-arguesE+-thatE+-thisE+-isE+-notE+-aE+-groundE+-forE+-vacatur
becauseE+-theE+-CBAE+-doesE+-notE+-requireE+-theE+-exchangeE+-ofE+-suchE+-notes.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

DenialE+-ofE+-AccessE+-toE+-InvestigativeE+-Files

WeE+-agree.E+-E+-ArticleE+-46E+-specifiesE+-thatE+-a[i]nE+-appealsE+-underE+-Section
1(a),E+- theE+- partiesE+- shallE+- exchangeE+- copiesE+- ofE+- anyE+- exhibitsE+- uponE+- which
theyE+- intendE+- toE+- rely.aE+- E+- JointE+- App.E+- atE+- 346.E+- E+- TheE+- Commissioner
reasonablyE+- interpretedE+- thisE+- provisionE+- toE+- notE+- requireE+- moreE+- extensive
discovery.E+- E+- Significantly,E+- theE+- partiesE+- agreedE+- inE+- theE+- CBAE+- toE+- permit
moreE+- comprehensiveE+- discoveryE+- inE+- otherE+- proceedings,E+- suchE+- asE+- those
underE+-ArticleE+-15,E+-SectionE+-3,E+-whichE+-allowsE+-areasonableE+-andE+-expedited
discoveryE+-uponE+-theE+-applicationE+-ofE+-anyE+-party.aE+-E+-SpecialE+-App.E+-atE+-65.
TheE+- CommissionerE+- furtherE+- concludedE+- thatE+- BradyE+- wasE+- not
deprivedE+- ofE+- fundamentalE+- fairnessE+- becauseE+- theE+- CommissionerE+- adid
notE+-reviewE+-anyE+-ofE+-Paul,E+-WeissaE+-internalE+-interviewE+-notesE+-orE+-anyE+-other
29

Nos.E+-15E!2801E+-(L),E+-15E!2805E+-(CON)

1
2
3
4
5
6

documentsE+- generatedE+- byE+- Paul,E+- WeissE+- otherE+- thanE+- theirE+- finalE+- report,a
andE+- theE+- LeagueE+- hadE+- alreadyE+- aproducedE+- allE+- ofE+- theE+- NFLE+- documents
consideredE+- byE+- theE+- investigators.aE+- E+- SpecialE+- App.E+- atE+- 65.E+- E+- The
CommissionerE+- pointedE+- outE+- thatE+- theE+- AssociationE+- hadE+- notE+- even
aidentifiedE+- anyE+- materialE+- factualE+- disputeE+- thatE+- Paul,E+- WeissaE+- internal
workE+-productE+-wouldE+-helpE+-toE+-resolve.aE+-E+-SpecialE+-App.E+-atE+-66.

14

InE+- makingE+- theseE+- findings,E+- theE+- CommissionerE+- was,E+- atE+- theE+- very
least,E+-aarguablyE+-construingE+-orE+-applyingE+-theE+-contract,aE+-Misco,E+-484E+-U.S.
atE+- 38,E+- andE+- heE+- reasonablyE+- concludedE+- thatE+- heE+- wouldE+- notE+- requireE+- the
productionE+- ofE+- attorneyE+- workE+- productE+- heE+- hadE+- notE+- reliedE+- on,E+- orE+- even
seen.E+-E+-HadE+-theE+-partiesE+-wishedE+-toE+-allowE+-forE+-moreE+-expansiveE+-discovery,
theyE+-couldE+-haveE+-bargainedE+-forE+-thatE+-right.E+-E+-TheyE+-didE+-not,E+-andE+-thereE+-is
simplyE+-noE+-fundamentalE+-unfairnessE+-inE+-affordingE+-theE+-partiesE+-precisely
whatE+-theyE+-agreedE+-on.

15

IV.

16

BecauseE+- theE+- districtE+- courtE+- heldE+- thatE+- BradyE+- wasE+- deprivedE+- of
adequateE+-noticeE+-andE+-fundamentalE+-fairness,E+-itE+-declinedE+-toE+-addressE+-the
AssociationasE+- alternativeE+- groundsE+- forE+- vacatur.E+- E+- AlthoughE+- itE+- isE+- our
usualE+-practiceE+-toE+-allowE+-theE+-districtE+-courtE+-toE+-addressE+-argumentsE+-inE+-the
firstE+-instance,E+-weE+-chooseE+-toE+-addressE+-theE+-AssociationasE+-argumentsE+-here
becauseE+- theyE+- wereE+- fullyE+- briefedE+- belowE+- andE+- onE+- appealE+- andE+- because
theyE+- areE+- meritless.E+- E+- WesterbekeE+- Corp.E+- v.E+- DaihatsuE+- MotorE+- Co.,E+- 304E+- F.3d
200,E+-218E+-(2dE+-Cir.E+-2002).E+-E+-Accordingly,E+-weE+-turnE+-toE+-theE+-twoE+-remaining
argumentsE+-advancedE+-onE+-appealE+-thatE+-(1)E+-theE+-CommissionerE+-deprived
BradyE+- ofE+- fundamentalE+- fairnessE+- whenE+- heE+- deniedE+- anE+- evidentiary
hearingE+- onE+- theE+- claimE+- thatE+- heE+- delegatedE+- hisE+- authorityE+- toE+- discipline
BradyE+- toE+- VincentE+- inE+- violationE+- ofE+- theE+- CBAasE+- grantE+- ofE+- exclusive
disciplinaryE+- authorityE+- toE+- theE+- Commissioner,E+- andE+- (2)E+- the
CommissionerE+- wasE+- evidentlyE+- partialE+- becauseE+- he,E+- ratherE+- thanE+- some
neutralE+-thirdE+-party,E+-decidedE+-theE+-delegationE+-issue.14E+-E+-

7
8
9
10
11
12
13

17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

AdditionalE+-Issues

14

E+-InE+-aE+-footnoteE+-onE+-theE+-lastE+-pageE+-ofE+-itsE+-brief,E+-theE+-AssociationE+-faultsE+-theE+-LeagueE+-forE+-its
afailureE+-toE+-employE+-testingE+-protocolsE+-toE+-ensureE+-afairE+-andE+-consistentaE+-discipline.aE+-
AppelleesaE+-Br.E+-62E+-n.13.E+-E+-aWeE+-ordinarilyE+-deemE+-anE+-argumentE+-toE+-beE+-forfeitedE+-.E+-.E+-.E+-whenE+-itE+-is

30

Nos.E+-15E!2801E+-(L),E+-15E!2805E+-(CON)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

A.

RefusalE+-toE+-HearE+-EvidenceE+-onE+-Delegation

TheE+- AssociationE+- contendsE+- thatE+- BradyE+- wasE+- deprivedE+- of
fundamentalE+- fairnessE+- whenE+- theE+- CommissionerE+- choseE+- notE+- toE+- hear
evidenceE+- onE+- whetherE+- heE+- improperlyE+- delegatedE+- hisE+- disciplinary
authorityE+- toE+- VincentE+- inE+- violationE+- ofE+- ArticleE+- 46.E+- E+- TheE+- Association
offeredE+- onlyE+- twoE+- meagerE+- piecesE+- ofE+- evidenceE+- inE+- support.E+- E+- First,E+- it
pointedE+- toE+- aE+- pressE+- releaseE+- inE+- whichE+- theE+- CommissionerE+- notedE+- that
aTroyE+-VincentE+-andE+-hisE+-teamE+-willE+-considerE+-whatE+-stepsE+-toE+-takeE+-inE+-light
ofE+- theE+- [Wells]E+- report.aE+- E+- JointE+- App.E+- atE+- 1207.E+- E+- Second,E+- itE+- citedE+- the
disciplinaryE+- letterE+- fromE+- theE+- LeagueE+- announcingE+- theE+- fourE!game
suspension,E+- whichE+- wasE+- sentE+- andE+- signedE+- byE+- VincentE+- insteadE+- of
Goodell.E+-
TheE+- CommissionerE+- adequatelyE+- explainedE+- thatE+- heE+- adidE+- not
delegateE+- [his]E+- authorityE+- asE+- CommissionerE+- toE+- determineE+- conduct
detrimentalE+-orE+-toE+-imposeE+-appropriateE+-discipline.aE+-E+-SpecialE+-App.E+-atE+-59.E+-
Rather,E+- heE+- aconcurredE+- inE+- [Vincentas]E+- recommendationE+- and
authorizedE+- himE+- toE+- communicateE+- toE+- .E+- .E+- .E+- Mr.E+- BradyE+- theE+- discipline
imposedE+-underE+-[theE+-Commissioneras]E+-authority.aE+-E+-SpecialE+-App.E+-atE+-59.E+-
Tellingly,E+-theE+-CommissionerE+-wentE+-onE+-toE+-remindE+-theE+-AssociationE+-that
thisE+- procedureE+- aha[d]E+- beenE+- employedE+- inE+- numerousE+- disciplinary
hearingsE+- overE+- theE+- pastE+- twoE+- decadesE+- andE+- ha[d]E+- neverE+- beforeE+- been
assertedE+-asE+-aE+-basisE+-forE+-compellingE+-theE+-CommissionerE+-orE+-anyoneE+-else
toE+-testifyE+-inE+-anE+-ArticleE+-46E+-disciplinaryE+-proceeding.aE+-E+-SpecialE+-App.E+-at
62.E+-E+-
WeE+- seeE+- noE+- improprietyE+- andE+- certainlyE+- noE+- fundamental
unfairnessE+- becauseE+- theE+- resolutionE+- ofE+- thisE+- matterE+- fellE+- wellE+- withinE+- the
broadE+-discretionE+-affordedE+-arbitrators.E+-E+-AndE+-theE+-allegationE+-lacksE+-merit,
asE+- theE+- recordE+- isE+- clearE+- thatE+- theE+- disciplineE+- imposedE+- onE+- BradyE+- was
pursuantE+- toE+- theE+- aCommissionerasE+- authority,aE+- whichE+- isE+- whatE+- Article
46E+- contemplates.E+- E+- WhereE+- aE+- claimE+- isE+- faciallyE+- deficient,E+- anE+- arbitrator
onlyE+-addressedE+-inE+-aE+-footnote,aE+-CityE+-ofE+-NewE+-YorkE+-v.E+-MickalisE+-PawnE+-Shop,E+-LLC,E+-645E+-F.3dE+-114,
137E+-(2dE+-Cir.E+-2011),E+-andE+-holdE+-likewiseE+-here.

31

Nos.E+-15E!2801E+-(L),E+-15E!2805E+-(CON)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

mayE+-summarilyE+-dismissE+-it,E+-soE+-longE+-asE+-doingE+-soE+-doesE+-notE+-contravene
theE+-collectiveE+-agreement.E+-E+-SeeE+-SheldonE+-v.E+-Vermonty,E+-269E+-F.3dE+-1202,E+-1207
(10thE+- Cir.E+- 2001).15E+- E+- IfE+- itE+- isE+- seriouslyE+- believedE+- thatE+- theseE+- procedures
wereE+- deficientE+- orE+- prejudicial,E+- theE+- remedyE+- wasE+- toE+- addressE+- them
duringE+- collectiveE+- bargaining.E+- E+- HadE+- theE+- partiesE+- wishedE+- toE+- otherwise
limitE+- theE+- arbitratorasE+- authority,E+- theyE+- couldE+- haveE+- negotiatedE+- termsE+- to
doE+-so.
B.

8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

EvidentE+-Partiality

TheE+- AssociationasE+- finalE+- contentionE+- isE+- thatE+- theE+- Commissioner
wasE+-evidentlyE+-partialE+-withE+-regardE+-toE+-theE+-delegationE+-issueE+-andE+-should
haveE+- recusedE+- himselfE+- fromE+- hearingE+- atE+- leastE+- thatE+- portionE+- ofE+- the
arbitrationE+- becauseE+- itE+- wasE+- improperE+- forE+- himE+- toE+- adjudicateE+- the
proprietyE+-ofE+-hisE+-ownE+-conduct.E+-E+-ThisE+-argumentE+-hasE+-noE+-merit.E+-
WeE+-mayE+-vacateE+-anE+-arbitrationE+-awardE+-awhereE+-thereE+-wasE+-evident
partialityE+- .E+- .E+- .E+- inE+- theE+- arbitrator[].aE+- E+- 9E+- U.S.C.E+- ASSE+- 10(a)(2).16E+- E+- aEvident
partialityE+- mayE+- beE+- foundE+- onlyE+- awhereE+- aE+- reasonableE+- personE+- would
haveE+- toE+- concludeE+- thatE+- anE+- arbitratorE+- wasE+- partialE+- toE+- oneE+- partyE+- toE+- the
arbitration.aaE+-E+-ScandinavianE+-Reins.E+-Co.E+-v.E+-SaintE+-PaulE+-FireE+-&E+-MarineE+-Ins.
Co.,E+- 668E+- F.3dE+- 60,E+- 64E+- (2dE+- Cir.E+- 2012)E+- (quotingE+- AppliedE+- Indus.E+- Materials
Corp.E+- v.E+- OvalarE+- MakineE+- TicaretE+- VeE+- Sanayi,E+- A.S.,E+- 492E+- F.3dE+- 132,E+- 137E+- (2d
Cir.E+-2007)).E+-E+-TheE+-partyE+-seekingE+-vacaturE+-mustE+-proveE+-evidentE+-partiality
byE+- aclearE+- andE+- convincingE+- evidence.aE+- E+- KolelE+- BethE+- YechielE+- MechilE+- of
Tartikov,E+- Inc.E+- v.E+- YLLE+- IrrevocableE+- Tr.,E+- 729E+- F.3dE+- 99,E+- 106E+- (2dE+- Cir.E+- 2013).E+-
However,E+- arbitrationE+- isE+- aE+- matterE+- ofE+- contract,E+- andE+- consequently,E+- the
15

E+-TheE+-recordE+-stronglyE+-suggestsE+-thatE+-theE+-delegationE+-argumentE+-wasE+-raisedE+-byE+-the
AssociationE+-inE+-orderE+-toE+-procureE+-aE+-moreE+-favorableE+-arbitrator.E+-E+-SeeE+-JointE+-App.E+-atE+-1120E+-(aIn
lightE+-ofE+-theE+-above,E+-theE+-NFLPAE+-believesE+-thatE+-neitherE+-CommissionerE+-GoodellE+-norE+-anyone
withE+-closeE+-tiesE+-toE+-theE+-NFLE+-canE+-serveE+-asE+-arbitratorE+-inE+-Mr.E+-BradyasE+-appeal.a).E+-E+-PartiesE+-to
arbitrationE+-haveE+-noE+-moreE+-rightE+-thanE+-litigantsE+-inE+-courtE+-toE+-forceE+-recusalsE+-byE+-leveling
meritlessE+-accusationsE+-againstE+-theE+-decisionE+-maker.E+-
16
E+-AsE+-above,E+-weE+-doE+-notE+-passE+-onE+-whetherE+-theE+-FAAasE+-aevidentE+-partialityaE+-standardE+-applies
toE+-arbitrationsE+-underE+-theE+-LMRA.E+-E+-BecauseE+-theE+-partiesE+-didE+-notE+-briefE+-thisE+-issueE+-and
becauseE+-theE+-resolutionE+-ofE+-thisE+-caseE+-isE+-unaffected,E+-weE+-assumeE+-thatE+-itE+-does.E+-E+-SeeE+-supraE+-note
13.

32

Nos.E+-15E!2801E+-(L),E+-15E!2805E+-(CON)

1
2
3
4

partiesE+- toE+- anE+- arbitrationE+- canE+- askE+- forE+- noE+- moreE+- impartialityE+- than
inheresE+- inE+- theE+- methodE+- theyE+- haveE+- chosen.E+- E+- WilliamsE+- v.E+- NatalE+- Football
League,E+- 582E+- F.3dE+- 863,E+- 885E+- (8thE+- Cir.E+- 2009);E+- WinfreyE+- v.E+- SimmonsE+- Foods,
Inc.,E+-495E+-F.3dE+-549,E+-551E+-(8thE+-Cir.E+-2007).

13

Here,E+- theE+- partiesE+- contractedE+- inE+- theE+- CBAE+- toE+- specificallyE+- allow
theE+- CommissionerE+- toE+- sitE+- asE+- theE+- arbitratorE+- inE+- allE+- disputesE+- brought
pursuantE+- toE+- ArticleE+- 46,E+- SectionE+- 1(a).E+- E+- TheyE+- didE+- soE+- knowingE+- fullE+- well
thatE+- theE+- CommissionerE+- hadE+- theE+- soleE+- powerE+- ofE+- determiningE+- what
constitutesE+- aconductE+- detrimental,aE+- andE+- thusE+- knowingE+- thatE+- the
CommissionerE+-wouldE+-haveE+-aE+-stakeE+-bothE+-inE+-theE+-underlyingE+-discipline
andE+- inE+- everyE+- arbitrationE+- broughtE+- pursuantE+- toE+- SectionE+- 1(a).E+- E+- HadE+- the
partiesE+- wishedE+- toE+- restrictE+- theE+- CommissionerasE+- authority,E+- theyE+- could
haveE+-fashionedE+-aE+-differentE+-agreement.E+-

14

CONCLUSION

15

ForE+- theE+- foregoingE+- reasons,E+- weE+- REVERSEE+- theE+- judgmentE+- ofE+- the
districtE+-courtE+-andE+-REMANDE+-withE+-instructionsE+-forE+-theE+-districtE+-courtE+-to
confirmE+-theE+-arbitrationE+-award.

5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

16
17

33

1

KATZMANN,E+-ChiefE+-Judge,E+-dissenting:E+-

2

ArticleE+- 46E+- ofE+- theE+- CollectiveE+- BargainingE+- AgreementE+- betweenE+- theE+- NFLE+-

3

PlayersE+- AssociationE+- (theE+- aAssociationa)E+- andE+- theE+- NFLE+- ManagementE+- CouncilE+-

4

requiresE+- theE+- CommissionerE+- toE+- provideE+- aE+- playerE+- withE+- noticeE+- ofE+- theE+- basisE+- forE+- anyE+-

5

disciplinaryE+- actionE+- andE+- anE+- opportunityE+- toE+- challengeE+- theE+- disciplineE+- inE+- anE+- appealE+-

6

hearing.E+-E+-WhenE+-theE+-Commissioner,E+-actingE+-inE+-hisE+-capacityE+-asE+-anE+-arbitrator,E+-changesE+-

7

theE+-factualE+-basisE+-forE+-theE+-disciplinaryE+-actionE+-afterE+-theE+-appealE+-hearingE+-concludes,E+-heE+-

8

underminesE+- theE+- fairE+- noticeE+- forE+- whichE+- theE+- AssociationE+- bargained,E+- deprivesE+- theE+-

9

playerE+-ofE+-anE+-opportunityE+-toE+-confrontE+-theE+-caseE+-againstE+-him,E+-and,E+-itE+-follows,E+-exceedsE+-

10

hisE+- limitedE+- authorityE+- underE+- theE+- CBAE+- toE+- decideE+- aappealsaE+- ofE+- disciplinaryE+-

11

decisions.E+-E+-E+-

12

InE+-itsE+-thoroughE+-andE+-thoughtfulE+-opinion,E+-theE+-majorityE+-doesE+-notE+-contestE+-thisE+-

13

understandingE+- ofE+- theE+- CBA.E+- E+- Instead,E+- itE+- assertsE+- thatE+- theE+- CommissionerE+- didE+- notE+-

14

changeE+- theE+- factualE+- basisE+- forE+- theE+- disciplineE+- and,E+- inE+- effect,E+- thatE+- anyE+- changeE+- wasE+-

15

harmless.E+-E+-IE+-cannotE+-agree.E+-E+-E+-

16

Additionally,E+- onE+- aE+- moreE+- fundamentalE+- level,E+- IE+- amE+- troubledE+- byE+- theE+-

17

CommissionerasE+- decisionE+- toE+- upholdE+- theE+- unprecedentedE+- fourE!gameE+- suspension.E+-E+-

18

TheE+- CommissionerE+- failedE+- toE+- evenE+- considerE+- aE+- highlyE+- relevantE+- alternativeE+- penaltyE+-

19

andE+- relied,E+- instead,E+- onE+- anE+- inaptE+- analogyE+- toE+- theE+- LeagueasE+- steroidE+- policy.E+- E+- ThisE+-

20

deficiency,E+-especiallyE+-whenE+-viewedE+-inE+-combinationE+-withE+-theE+-shiftingE+-rationaleE+-forE+-

21

BradyasE+- discipline,E+- leavesE+- meE+- toE+- concludeE+- thatE+- theE+- CommissionerasE+- decisionE+-

22

reflectedE+-ahisE+-ownE+-brandE+-ofE+-industrialE+-justice.aE+-E+-UnitedE+-SteelworkersE+-ofE+-Am.E+-v.E+-Enter.E+-

23

WheelE+-&E+-CarE+-Corp.,E+-363E+-U.S.E+-593,E+-597E+-(1960).E+-
ForE+-theseE+-reasons,E+-IE+-respectfullyE+-dissent.E+-

24

I.

25

E+-

JudicialE+-reviewE+-ofE+-anE+-arbitrationE+-awardE+-canE+-beE+-boiledE+-downE+-toE+-aE+-twoE!stepE+-

26
27

process.E+-E+-E+-BothE+-inquiriesE+-followE+-fromE+-theE+-fundamentalE+-premiseE+-thatE+-aarbitrationE+-isE+-

28

aE+-matterE+-ofE+-contract.aE+-E+-UnitedE+-SteelworkersE+-ofE+-Am.E+-v.E+-WarriorE+-&E+-GulfE+-Nav.E+-Co.,E+-363E+-

29

U.S.E+-574,E+-582E+-(1960).E+-E+-InE+-theE+-firstE+-step,E+-theE+-reviewingE+-courtE+-asksE+-whetherE+-theE+-
1E+-
E+-

1

arbitratorE+-actedE+-withinE+-theE+-scopeE+-ofE+-hisE+-authorityE+-underE+-theE+-relevantE+-collectiveE+-

2

bargainingE+-agreement.E+-E+-SeeE+-LocalE+-1199,E+-Drug,E+-Hosp.E+-&E+-HealthE+-CareE+-Emp.E+-Union,E+-

3

RWDSU,E+-AFLE!CIOE+-v.E+-BrooksE+-DrugE+-Co.,E+-956E+-F.2dE+-22,E+-25E+-(2dE+-Cir.E+-1992).E+-E+-ThisE+-ensuresE+-

4

thatE+-aE+-partyE+-isE+-notE+-forcedE+-atoE+-submitE+-toE+-arbitrationE+-anyE+-disputeE+-whichE+-heE+-hasE+-notE+-

5

agreedE+-soE+-toE+-submit.aE+-E+-WarriorE+-&E+-GulfE+-Nav.E+-Co.,E+-363E+-U.S.E+-atE+-582.E+-E+-IfE+-theE+-arbitratorE+-

6

actedE+-withinE+-theE+-scopeE+-ofE+-hisE+-authority,E+-thenE+-hisE+-decisionE+-isE+-entitledE+-toE+-substantialE+-

7

deference.E+-E+-TheE+-awardE+-willE+-beE+-upheldE+-soE+-longE+-asE+-theE+-reviewingE+-courtE+-finds,E+-atE+-theE+-

8

secondE+-step,E+-thatE+-theE+-arbitralE+-awardE+-adrawsE+-itsE+-essenceE+-fromE+-theE+-agreementaE+-andE+-

9

doesE+-notE+-reflectE+-amerelyE+-anE+-exampleE+-ofE+-theE+-arbitratorasE+-ownE+-brandE+-ofE+-justice.aE+-E+-

10

BrooksE+-DrugE+-Co.,E+-956E+-F.2dE+-atE+-25.E+-E+-ThisE+-guaranteesE+-thatE+-theE+-partiesE+-getE+-whatE+-theyE+-

11

bargainedE+-for,E+-namely,E+-theE+-arbitratorasE+-constructionE+-ofE+-theE+-CBA.E+-E+-Enter.E+-WheelE+-&E+-

12

CarE+-Corp.,E+-363E+-U.S.E+-atE+-599.E+-E+-InE+-myE+-opinion,E+-theE+-CommissionerasE+-decisionE+-failsE+-asE+-toE+-

13

bothE+-steps.E+-
II.

14

E+-

15

WithE+-regardE+-toE+-theE+-firstE+-step,E+-ArticleE+-46E+-ofE+-theE+-CBAE+-vestsE+-theE+-CommissionerE+-

16

withE+-exceptionalE+-discretionE+-toE+-imposeE+-disciplineE+-forE+-aconductE+-detrimental,aE+-butE+-itE+-

17

checksE+-thatE+-powerE+-byE+-allowingE+-theE+-playerE+-toE+-challengeE+-thatE+-disciplineE+-throughE+-anE+-

18

aappeal.aE+-E+-JointE+-App.E+-atE+-345E!46.E+-E+-InE+-decidingE+-theE+-appeal,E+-theE+-arbitratorE+-mayE+-decideE+-

19

whetherE+- theE+- misconductE+- chargedE+- actuallyE+- occurred,E+- whetherE+- itE+- wasE+- actuallyE+-

20

adetrimentalaE+- toE+- theE+- League,E+- andE+- whetherE+- theE+- penaltyE+- imposedE+- isE+- permissibleE+-

21

underE+- theE+- CBA.E+- E+- ButE+- theE+- arbitratorE+- hasE+- noE+- authorityE+- toE+- baseE+- hisE+- decisionE+- onE+-

22

misconductE+- differentE+- fromE+- thatE+- originallyE+- charged.E+- E+- WhenE+- heE+- doesE+- so,E+- theE+-

23

arbitratorE+-goesE+-beyondE+-hisE+-limitedE+-authority,E+-andE+-theE+-awardE+-shouldE+-beE+-vacated.E+-

24

IE+- wouldE+- findE+- thatE+- theE+- CommissionerE+- breachedE+- thatE+- limitationE+- here.E+- E+- IE+-

25

believeE+-thereE+-areE+-significantE+-differencesE+-betweenE+-theE+-limitedE+-findingsE+-inE+-theE+-WellsE+-

26

ReportE+-andE+-theE+-additionalE+-findingsE+-theE+-CommissionerE+-madeE+-forE+-theE+-firstE+-timeE+-inE+-

27

hisE+- finalE+- writtenE+- decision.E+- E+- TheE+- letterE+- announcingE+- BradyasE+- disciplineE+- explainedE+-

28

thatE+- hisE+- aactionsE+- asE+- setE+- forthE+- inE+- theE+- [WellsE+- Report]E+- clearlyE+- constitute[d]E+- conductE+-

29

detrimentalE+-toE+-theE+-integrityE+-ofE+-andE+-publicE+-confidenceE+-inE+-theE+-gameE+-ofE+-professionalE+-

30

footballaE+- andE+- warrantedE+- aE+- fourE!gameE+- suspension.E+- E+- JointE+- App.E+- atE+- 329E!30.E+- E+- TheE+-
2E+-
E+-

1

WellsE+- Report,E+- inE+- turn,E+- concludedE+- thatE+- itE+-wasE+-amoreE+- probableE+- thanE+- notE+- thatE+- TomE+-

2

BradyE+- .E+- .E+- .E+- wasE+- atE+- leastE+- generallyE+- awareE+- ofE+- theE+- inappropriateE+- activitiesE+- ofE+- [Jim]E+-

3

McNallyE+- andE+- [John]E+- JastremskiE+- involvingE+- theE+- releaseE+- ofE+- airE+- fromE+- PatriotsE+- gameE+-

4

balls,aE+-JointE+-App.E+-atE+-97,E+-andE+-thatE+-itE+-wasE+-aunlikelyaE+-thatE+-McNallyE+-andE+-JastremskiE+-

5

deflatedE+- theE+- ballsE+- withoutE+- BradyasE+- aknowledge,aE+- aapproval,aE+- aawareness,aE+- andE+-

6

aconsent,aE+- JointE+- App.E+- atE+- 114.E+- E+- TheE+- CommissionerasE+- finalE+- writtenE+- decision,E+-

7

however,E+- wentE+- further.E+- E+- ItE+- foundE+- thatE+- BradyE+- aknewE+- about,E+- approvedE+- of,E+-

8

consentedE+- to,E+- andE+- providedE+- inducementsE+- andE+- rewardsE+- inE+- supportE+- ofE+- aE+- schemeE+- byE+-

9

which,E+- withE+- Mr.E+- JastremskiasE+- support,E+- Mr.E+- McNallyE+- tamperedE+- withE+- theE+- gameE+-

10

balls.aE+-E+-SpecialE+-App.E+-atE+-51E+-(emphasisE+-added).E+-E+-E+-

11

RegardlessE+- ofE+- whetherE+- theE+- differenceE+- betweenE+- theE+- WellsE+- ReportE+- andE+- theE+-

12

CommissionerasE+- decisionE+- constitutesE+- aE+- aquantumE+- leap,aE+- Maj.E+- Op.E+- atE+- 21,E+- IE+- amE+-

13

convincedE+- thatE+- theE+- changeE+- wasE+- material.E+- E+- TheE+- misconductE+- foundE+- inE+- theE+- WellsE+-

14

ReportE+- isE+- indisputablyE+- lessE+- culpableE+- thanE+- inducingE+- andE+- rewardingE+- cheatingE+-

15

throughE+-theE+-paymentE+-ofE+-memorabilia,E+-asE+-wasE+-foundE+-inE+-theE+-CommissionerasE+-finalE+-

16

decision.E+-

17

TheE+- majorityE+- takesE+- theE+- viewE+- thatE+- theE+- WellsE+- ReportasE+- conclusionsE+- clearlyE+-

18

encompassedE+- aE+- findingE+- thatE+- BradyE+- inducedE+- andE+- rewardedE+- theE+- deflationE+- ofE+-

19

footballs.E+- E+- ToE+- theE+- contrary,E+- althoughE+- theE+- WellsE+- ReportE+- describedE+- evidenceE+- thatE+-

20

BradyE+-providedE+-bothE+-McNallyE+-andE+-JastremskiE+-withE+-giftsE+-andE+-thatE+-McNallyE+-jokedE+-

21

aboutE+- demandingE+- cashE+- andE+- otherE+- memorabilia,E+- itE+- neverE+- concludedE+- thatE+- itE+- wasE+-

22

amoreE+- probableE+- thanE+- notaE+- thatE+- theE+- giftsE+- BradyE+- providedE+- wereE+- intendedE+- asE+-

23

rewardsE+-orE+-advanceE+-paymentE+-forE+-deflatingE+-footballsE+-inE+-violationE+-ofE+-LeagueE+-rules.E+-E+-

24

ThatE+- standsE+- inE+- starkE+- contrastE+- toE+- theE+- WellsE+- ReportasE+- clearE+- conclusions,E+- byE+- aE+-

25

preponderanceE+- ofE+- theE+- evidence,E+- regardingE+- BradyasE+- aknowledge,aE+- aapproval,aE+-

26

aawareness,aE+-andE+-aconsent.aE+-E+-FairlyE+-read,E+-theE+-WellsE+-ReportE+-didE+-notE+-putE+-BradyE+-onE+-

27

noticeE+-thatE+-heE+-wasE+-foundE+-toE+-haveE+-engagedE+-inE+-aE+-quidE+-proE+-quo.1E+-

E+- TheE+- majorityE+- alsoE+- suggestsE+- thatE+- theE+- AssociationE+- neverE+- raisedE+- thisE+- issue.E+- E+- AlthoughE+- notE+- everyE+- detailE+- IE+-
mentionE+-isE+-foundE+-inE+-theE+-AssociationasE+-brief,E+-theE+-concernE+-isE+-notE+-ofE+-myE+-ownE+-making.E+-E+-SeeE+-Br.E+-forE+-AppelleesE+-
NatalE+-FootballE+-LeagueE+-PlayersE+-AssanE+-andE+-TomE+-BradyE+-atE+-49E+-(aHopingE+-toE+-compensateE+-forE+-theE+-WellsE+-ReportasE+-
limitedE+-findingsE+-concerningE+-BradyasE+-stateE+-ofE+-mind,E+-GoodellE+-pulledE+-hisE+-aparticipat[ion]aE+-andE+-ainducement[]aE+-
1

3E+-
E+-

1

E+-IE+- wouldE+- alsoE+- findE+- thatE+- BradyE+- wasE+- prejudicedE+- byE+- theE+- changeE+- inE+- theE+-

2

CommissionerasE+- rationaleE+- andE+- theE+- resultingE+- lackE+- ofE+- notice.E+- E+- TheE+- Association,E+- inE+-

3

lightE+-ofE+-theE+-lackE+-ofE+-anyE+-clearE+-findingE+-inE+-theE+-WellsE+-ReportE+-asE+-toE+-theE+-purposeE+-ofE+-theE+-

4

gifts,E+-paidE+-almostE+-noE+-attentionE+-toE+-BradyasE+-giftE!givingE+-duringE+-theE+-appealE+-hearing.E+-E+-

5

ToE+-supportE+-BradyasE+-argumentE+-thatE+-heE+-hadE+-noE+-relationshipE+-withE+-McNally,E+-counselE+-

6

forE+-theE+-AssociationE+-askedE+-BradyE+-onE+-directE+-examinationE+-whetherE+-heE+-everE+-providedE+-

7

giftsE+-toE+-peopleE+-heE+-didE+-notE+-know,E+-andE+-BradyasE+-affirmativeE+-responseE+-wasE+-thenE+-usedE+-

8

inE+-hisE+-postE!hearingE+-briefE+-onlyE+-toE+-establishE+-thatE+-singleE+-point.E+-E+-SeeE+-Dist.E+-Ct.E+-Dkt.E+-No.E+-

9

28E!231E+- atE+- 15E+- (PostE!HearingE+- Br.E+- ofE+- theE+- NFLPAE+- andE+- TomE+- Brady)E+- (aTheE+- onlyE+- thingE+-

10

alinkingaE+-[BradyE+-andE+-McNally]E+-isE+-thatE+-BradyE+-purportedlyE+-signedE+-memorabiliaE+-forE+-

11

McNally,E+- butE+- BradyE+- testifiedE+- thatE+- heE+- naturallyE+- doesE+- notE+- knowE+- theE+- nameE+- ofE+-

12

everyoneE+- forE+- whomE+- heE+- signsE+- memorabilia,E+- andE+- evenE+- WellsE+- foundE+- thatE+- BradyE+-

13

neverE+-providedE+-McNallyE+-anyE+-yearE!endE+-giftsE+-orE+-bonusesE+-thatE+-wouldE+-suggestE+-theyE+-

14

hadE+-anyE+-relationship.a).E+-E+-BeyondE+-that,E+-theE+-giftsE+-playedE+-noE+-roleE+-inE+-theE+-AssociationasE+-

15

challengeE+- toE+- BradyasE+- discipline:E+- E+- theE+- LeagueE+- didE+- notE+- askE+- BradyE+- aboutE+- giftsE+- toE+-

16

McNallyE+-onE+-crossE!examination,E+-andE+-neitherE+-sideE+-askedE+-BradyE+-aboutE+-anyE+-giftsE+-heE+-

17

providedE+-toE+-Jastremski.E+-

18

TheE+- AssociationasE+- silenceE+- onE+- thisE+- issue,E+- however,E+- seemsE+- toE+- meE+- toE+- reflectE+-

19

onlyE+-theE+-lackE+-ofE+-notice,E+-notE+-theE+-lackE+-ofE+-anE+-availableE+-argumentE+-orE+-aE+-tacticalE+-decisionE+-

20

toE+- focusE+- onE+- otherE+- issues.E+- E+- TheE+- WellsE+- ReportE+- foundE+- thatE+- McNallyE+- referredE+- toE+-

21

himselfE+-asE+-atheE+-deflatoraE+-andE+-threatenedE+-(perhapsE+-jokingly)E+-toE+-goE+-toE+-ESPNE+-asE+-farE+-

22

backE+- asE+- MayE+- 2014,E+- butE+- itE+- alsoE+- creditedE+- McNallyasE+- statementE+- thatE+- BradyE+- neverE+-

23

providedE+- himE+- withE+- theE+- sameE+- giftsE+- doledE+- outE+- toE+- otherE+- employeesE+- inE+- theE+- lockerE+-

24

room.2E+- E+- TheE+- suggestionE+- thatE+- McNallyE+- didE+- notE+- receiveE+- giftsE+- fromE+- BradyE+- evenE+-

languageE+- fromE+- thinE+- air.a).E+- E+- Indeed,E+- theE+- majorityE+- addressesE+- theE+- AssociationasE+- challengeE+- toE+- theE+-
CommissionerasE+-shiftE+-toE+-aE+-findingE+-ofE+-aparticipation,aE+-andE+-inE+-myE+-view,E+-theE+-CommissionerasE+-decisionE+-usesE+-
aparticipationaE+- toE+- referE+- toE+- notE+- onlyE+- BradyasE+- knowledgeE+- andE+- approvalE+- ofE+- theE+- scheme,E+- butE+- alsoE+- hisE+- useE+- ofE+-
inducementsE+- andE+- rewards.E+- E+- TheE+- AssociationasE+- failureE+- toE+- fullyE+- fleshE+- outE+- thisE+- argumentE+- is,E+- IE+- suspect,E+- aE+-
consequenceE+-ofE+-theE+-districtE+-courtE+-neverE+-havingE+-reachedE+-theE+-issue,E+-seeE+-NatalE+-FootballE+-LeagueE+-Mgmt.E+-CouncilE+-v.E+-
NatElE+- FootballE+- LeagueE+- PlayersE+- Assn,E+- 125E+- F.E+- Supp.E+- 3dE+- 449,E+- 474E+- (S.D.N.Y.E+- 2015),E+- andE+- theE+- majorityasE+- decisionE+-
(withE+-whichE+-IE+-doE+-notE+-quarrel)E+-toE+-rejectE+-theE+-AssociationasE+-requestE+-toE+-remandE+-onE+-thisE+-issue.E+-
E+-
2E+-ForE+-example,E+-theE+-WellsE+-ReportE+-statedE+-theE+-followingE+-regardingE+-textsE+-fromE+-McNallyE+-demandingE+-ticketsE+-toE+-aE+-
gameE+-betweenE+-theE+-BostonE+-CelticsE+-andE+-LosE+-AngelesE+-LakersE+-andE+-newE+-UggsE+-shoes:E+-

4E+-
E+-

1

duringE+- theE+- periodE+- inE+- whichE+- McNallyE+- sentE+- suspiciousE+- textE+- messagesE+- isE+- furtherE+-

2

corroboratedE+-byE+-anE+-OctoberE+-2014E+-textE+-messageE+-inE+-whichE+-JastremskiE+-toldE+-McNallyE+-

3

thatE+-BradyE+-agivesE+-uE+-nothing.aE+-E+-JointE+-App.E+-atE+-101.E+-E+-Finally,E+-itE+-appearsE+-undisputedE+-

4

inE+- theE+- WellsE+- ReportE+- thatE+- BradyE+- providedE+- giftsE+- toE+- otherE+- lockerE+- roomE+- attendantsE+-

5

whoE+- haveE+- notE+- beenE+- implicatedE+- inE+- theE+- deflationE+- (orE+- anyE+- other)E+- scheme.E+- E+- BradyasE+-

6

giftE!giving,E+-inE+-otherE+-words,E+-wasE+-notE+-necessarilyE+-indicativeE+-ofE+-illicitE+-behavior.E+-

7

NoneE+-ofE+-thisE+-isE+-toE+-sayE+-thatE+-theE+-inferencesE+-thatE+-theE+-CommissionerE+-drewE+-fromE+-

8

theE+-evidenceE+-presentedE+-inE+-theE+-WellsE+-ReportE+-constitutedE+-reversibleE+-errorE+-onE+-theirE+-

9

own.E+-E+-ButE+-theE+-foregoingE+-demonstratesE+-thatE+-theE+-AssociationE+-wouldE+-haveE+-beenE+-ableE+-

10

toE+- offerE+- aE+- meaningfulE+- challengeE+- toE+- theE+- CommissionerasE+- conclusionE+- (possiblyE+-

11

supportedE+- byE+- additionalE+- newE+- evidenceE+- regardingE+- BradyasE+- practiceE+- ofE+- providingE+-

12

gifts)E+-hadE+-itE+-beenE+-announcedE+-priorE+-toE+-theE+-ArticleE+-46E+-appealE+-hearing.E+-E+-TakingE+-theE+-

13

CommissionerE+- atE+- hisE+- wordE+- thatE+- heE+- aenteredE+- intoE+- theE+- appealE+- processE+- openE+- toE+-

14

reevaluatingE+- [his]E+- assessmentE+- ofE+- Mr.E+- BradyasE+- conductE+- andE+- theE+- associatedE+-

15

discipline,aE+- SpecialE+- App.E+- atE+- 60,E+- IE+- believeE+- that,E+- hadE+- BradyE+- beenE+- providedE+- anE+-

16

opportunityE+- toE+- challengeE+- theE+- CommissionerasE+- conclusionE+- onE+- thisE+- score,E+- theE+-

17

outcomeE+- mayE+- haveE+- beenE+- different.E+- E+- TheE+- majorityasE+- observationE+- thatE+- theE+-

18

CommissionerE+-didE+-notE+-increaseE+-BradyasE+-punishmentE+-isE+-besideE+-theE+-point.E+-E+-HadE+-theE+-

19

CommissionerE+- confinedE+- himselfE+- toE+- theE+- misconductE+- originallyE+- charged,E+- heE+- mayE+-

20

haveE+-beenE+-persuadedE+-toE+-decreaseE+-theE+-punishmentE+-initiallyE+-handedE+-down.E+-E+-E+-E+-E+-


E+-
McNallyE+- describedE+- theseE+- textsE+- asE+- jokes,E+- whichE+- weE+- thinkE+- isE+- likelyE+- theE+- case.E+- Specifically,E+- onE+-
DecemberE+-5,E+-2014,E+-theE+-BostonE+-CelticsE+-wereE+-playingE+-theE+-LosE+-AngelesE+-LakersE+-inE+-BostonE+-andE+-
McNallyE+- hadE+- beenE+- askingE+- JastremskiE+- toE+- getE+- themE+- ticketsE+- toE+- aE+- CelticsE!LakersE+- gameE+- forE+-
years.E+- E+- McNallyE+- saidE+- theE+- jokeE+- wasE+- thatE+- BradyE+- shouldE+- getE+- themE+- courtsideE+- seatsE+- forE+- theE+-
game.E+-E+-WithE+-regardE+-toE+-theE+-Uggs,E+-McNallyE+-saidE+-thatE+-aroundE+-theE+-holidaysE+-eachE+-yearE+-BradyE+-
givesE+-UggsE+-footwearE+-toE+-certainE+-PatriotsE+-staffE+-members,E+-butE+-thatE+-McNallyE+-hasE+-neverE+-receivedE+-
them.E+- E+- HeE+- explainedE+- thatE+- hisE+- messageE+- wasE+- aE+- humorousE+- responseE+- toE+- aE+- newsE+- reportE+- onE+-
BradyasE+-distributionE+-ofE+-UggsE+-inE+-2014.E+-
E+-
JointE+-App.E+-atE+-183E+-(emphasisE+-added).E+-
E+-

5E+-
E+-

1

Accordingly,E+-IE+-wouldE+-findE+-thatE+-theE+-CommissionerE+-exceededE+-hisE+-authority,E+-

2

toE+-BradyasE+-detriment,E+-byE+-restingE+-BradyasE+-disciplineE+-onE+-factualE+-findingsE+-notE+-madeE+-

3

inE+-theE+-WellsE+-Report.3E+-
III.

4

E+-

5

IE+-wouldE+-alsoE+-findE+-thatE+-theE+-CommissionerasE+-decisionE+-failsE+-atE+-theE+-secondE+-stepE+-

6

ofE+- ourE+- analysisE+- becauseE+- itE+- doesE+- notE+- drawE+- itsE+- essenceE+- fromE+- theE+- CBA.E+- E+- ItE+- mustE+- beE+-

7

emphasizedE+- thatE+- theE+- caseE+- atE+- handE+- involvesE+- anE+- unprecedentedE+- punishment.E+-E+-

8

PreciselyE+- becauseE+- ofE+- theE+- severityE+- ofE+- theE+- penalty,E+- oneE+- wouldE+- haveE+- expectedE+- theE+-

9

CommissionerE+- toE+- atE+- leastE+- fullyE+- considerE+- otherE+- alternativeE+- andE+- collectivelyE+-

10

bargainedE!forE+- penalties,E+- evenE+- ifE+- heE+- ultimatelyE+- rejectedE+- them.E+- E+- Indeed,E+- theE+- CBAE+-

11

encouragesathough,E+- asE+- theE+- majorityE+- observes,E+- doesE+- notE+- strictlyE+- requireatheE+-

12

CommissionerE+- toE+- fullyE+- explainE+- hisE+- reasoningE+- byE+- mandatingE+- thatE+- heE+- issueE+- aE+-

13

writtenE+- decisionE+- whenE+- resolvingE+- anE+- ArticleE+- 46E+- appeal.E+- E+- ThatE+- processE+- isE+- allE+- theE+-

14

moreE+- importantE+- whenE+- theE+- disciplinaryE+- actionE+- isE+- novelE+- andE+- theE+- CommissionerasE+-

15

reasoningE+-is,E+-asE+-here,E+-farE+-fromE+-obvious.E+-E+-

16

Yet,E+- theE+- CommissionerE+- failedE+- toE+- evenE+- mention,E+- letE+- aloneE+- explain,E+- aE+- highlyE+-

17

analogousE+- penalty,E+- anE+- omissionE+- thatE+- underscoresE+- theE+- peculiarE+- natureE+- ofE+- BradyasE+-

18

punishment.E+-E+-TheE+-LeagueE+-prohibitsE+-theE+-useE+-ofE+-stickum,E+-aE+-substanceE+-thatE+-enhancesE+-

19

aE+-playerasE+-grip.E+-E+-UnderE+-aE+-collectivelyE+-bargainedE!forE+-ScheduleE+-ofE+-Fines,E+-aE+-violationE+-

20

ofE+- thisE+- prohibitionE+- warrantsE+- anE+- $8,268E+- fineE+- inE+- theE+- absenceE+- ofE+- aggravatingE+-

21

circumstances.E+-E+-GivenE+-thatE+-bothE+-theE+-useE+-ofE+-stickumE+-andE+-theE+-deflationE+-ofE+-footballsE+-

22

involveE+-attemptsE+-atE+-improvingE+-oneasE+-gripE+-andE+-evadingE+-theE+-refereesaE+-enforcementE+-


E+- TheE+- CommissionerasE+- rationaleE+- alsoE+- shiftedE+- insofarE+- asE+- heE+- reliedE+- onE+- newE+- evidenceE+- regardingE+- BradyasE+-
destructionE+-ofE+-hisE+-cellE+-phoneE+-toE+-findE+-thatE+-BradyE+-awillfullyE+-obstructedaE+-WellsasE+-investigation.E+-E+-SpecialE+-App.E+-
atE+- 54.E+- E+- TheE+- majorityE+- persuasivelyE+- demonstrates,E+- however,E+- thatE+- BradyE+- anticipatedE+- thisE+- changeE+- andE+-
challengedE+-itE+-atE+-theE+-hearingE+-andE+-inE+-hisE+-postE!hearingE+-brief.E+-E+-Thus,E+-IE+-agreeE+-thatE+-theE+-CommissionerasE+-relianceE+-
onE+-thisE+-newE+-evidenceE+-doesE+-notE+-provideE+-aE+-groundE+-toE+-vacateE+-theE+-suspension.E+-E+-Cf.E+-DufercoE+-IntElE+-SteelE+-TradingE+-v.E+-
T.E+- KlavenessE+- ShippingE+- A/S,E+- 333E+- F.3dE+- 383,E+- 390E+- (2dE+- Cir.E+- 2003)E+- (aWeE+- will,E+- ofE+- course,E+- notE+- vacateE+- anE+- arbitralE+-
awardE+-forE+-anE+-erroneousE+-applicationE+-ofE+-theE+-lawE+-ifE+-aE+-properE+-applicationE+-ofE+-lawE+-wouldE+-haveE+-yieldedE+-theE+-sameE+-
result.a).E+-
E+-
3

6E+-
E+-

1

ofE+- theE+- rules,4E+- thisE+- wouldE+- seemE+- aE+- naturalE+- startingE+- pointE+- forE+- assessingE+- BradyasE+-

2

penalty.E+- E+- Indeed,E+- theE+- LeagueasE+- justificationE+- forE+- prohibitingE+- stickumathatE+- itE+-

3

aaffectsE+- theE+- integrityE+- ofE+- theE+- competitionE+- andE+- canE+- giveE+- aE+- teamE+- anE+- unfairE+-

4

advantage,aE+-JointE+-App.E+-atE+-384E+-(LeagueE+-PoliciesE+-forE+-Players)aisE+-nearlyE+-identicalE+-toE+-

5

theE+- CommissionerasE+- explanationE+- forE+- whatE+- heE+- foundE+- problematicE+- aboutE+- theE+-

6

deflationathatE+-itE+-areflectsE+-anE+-improperE+-effortE+-toE+-secureE+-aE+-competitiveE+-advantageE+-

7

in,E+-andE+-threatensE+-theE+-integrityE+-of,E+-theE+-game,aE+-SpecialE+-App.E+-atE+-57.5E+-E+-E+-

8

NotwithstandingE+- theseE+- parallels,E+- theE+- CommissionerE+- ignoredE+- theE+- stickumE+-

9

penaltyE+-entirely.E+-E+-ThisE+-oversightE+-leavesE+-aE+-noticeableE+-voidE+-inE+-theE+-CommissionerasE+-

10

decision,6E+-andE+-inE+-myE+-opinion,E+-theE+-voidE+-isE+-indicativeE+-ofE+-theE+-awardasE+-overallE+-failureE+-

11

toE+- drawE+- itsE+- essenceE+- fromE+- theE+- CBA.E+- E+- EvenE+- takingE+- intoE+- accountE+- theE+- specialE+-

12

circumstancesE+- hereathatE+- theE+- allegedE+- misconductE+- occurredE+- duringE+- theE+- AFCE+-

13

ChampionshipE+- Game,E+- thatE+- teamE+- employeesE+- assistedE+- inE+- theE+- deflation,E+- thatE+- aE+-

14

deflatedE+-footballE+-arguablyE+-affectsE+-everyE+-play,E+-andE+-thatE+-BradyE+-failedE+-toE+-cooperateE+-

15

inE+- theE+- subsequentE+- investigationaIE+- amE+- unableE+- toE+- understandE+- whyE+- theE+-

16

CommissionerE+-thoughtE+-theE+-appropriateE+-penaltyE+-wasE+-aE+-fourE!gameE+-suspensionE+-andE+-

17

theE+- attendantE+- fourE!gameE+- lossE+- ofE+- pay,E+- which,E+- inE+- BradyasE+- case,E+- isE+- farE+- moreE+- thanE+-

E+- JustE+- asE+- theE+- refereesE+- checkE+- theE+- inflationE+- levelE+- ofE+- theE+- footballsE+- beforeE+- theE+- startE+- ofE+- theE+- game,E+- theyE+- checkE+-
playersE+-forE+-stickumE+-apriorE+-toE+-theE+-gameE+-andE+-priorE+-toE+-theE+-beginningE+-ofE+-theE+-secondE+-half.aE+-E+-JointE+-App.E+-atE+-384.E+-E+-
E+-
5E+-AlthoughE+-theE+-CommissionerE+-reasonedE+-thatE+-steroidE+-useE+-alsoE+-hasE+-theE+-sameE+-adverseE+-effectsE+-onE+-theE+-League,E+-
theE+- factE+- thatE+- numerousE+- infractionsE+- mayE+- beE+- saidE+- toE+- compromiseE+- theE+- integrityE+- ofE+- theE+- gameE+- andE+- reflectE+- anE+-
attemptE+- toE+- gainE+- aE+- competitiveE+- advantageE+- servesE+- onlyE+- toE+- renderE+- moreE+- problematicE+- theE+- CommissionerasE+-
selectionE+-ofE+-whatE+-appearsE+-toE+-beE+-theE+-harshestE+-potentialE+-comparatorE+-withoutE+-anyE+-meaningfulE+-explanation.E+-E+-
ThisE+- isE+- especiallyE+- trueE+- since,E+- forE+- theE+- reasonsE+- statedE+- byE+- theE+- districtE+- court,E+- theE+- CommissionerasE+- analogyE+- toE+-
steroidE+- useE+- isE+- flawed.E+- E+- SeeE+- NatalE+- FootballE+- LeagueE+- Mgmt.E+- Council,E+- 125E+- F.E+- Supp.E+- 3dE+- atE+- 465.E+- E+- InE+- short,E+- theE+-
CommissionerasE+- relianceE+- onE+- theE+- LeagueasE+- steroidE+- policyE+- seemsE+- toE+- meE+- toE+- beE+- nothingE+- moreE+- thanE+- mereE+-
anoisesE+-ofE+-contractE+-interpretationaE+-toE+-whichE+-weE+-doE+-notE+-ordinarilyE+-defer.E+-E+-InE+-reE+-MarineE+-PollutionE+-Serv.,E+-Inc.,E+-
857E+-F.2dE+-91,E+-94E+-(2dE+-Cir.E+-1988)E+-(quotingE+-EthylE+-Corp.E+-v.E+-UnitedE+-Steelworkers,E+-768E+-F.2dE+-180,E+-187E+-(7thE+-Cir.E+-1985)).E+-
E+-E+-
6E+- TheE+- omissionE+- isE+- allE+- theE+- moreE+- troublingE+- sinceE+- theE+- AssociationE+- raisedE+- thisE+- pointE+- duringE+- theE+- arbitrationE+-
proceedings.E+-E+- SeeE+- Dist.E+- Ct.E+- Dkt.E+- No.E+- 28E!231E+-atE+- 9E+- (PostE!HearingE+- Br.E+-ofE+- theE+- NFLPAE+- andE+- TomE+- Brady)E+- (aTheE+-
PlayerE+-PoliciesE+-furtherE+-illustrateE+-theE+-disparateE+-natureE+-ofE+-anyE+-playerE+-suspensionE+-forE+-anE+-allegedE+-competitiveE+-
infraction,E+- letE+- aloneE+- forE+- justE+- beingE+- agenerallyE+- awareaE+- ofE+- one.E+- E+- TheyE+- identifyE+- playerE+- punishmentsE+- forE+-
equipmentE+- violationsE+- thatE+- aaffect[]E+- theE+- integrityE+- ofE+- theE+- competitionE+- andE+- canE+- giveE+- aE+- teamE+- anE+- unfairE+-
advantageaasuchE+-asE+-puttingE+-stickumE+-onE+-receiverE+-glovesE+-.E+-.E+-.E+-aandE+-subjectE+-firstE!timeE+-playerE+-offendersE+-toE+-aE+-
fineE+-ofE+-$8,268E+-forE+-aE+-specifiedE+-violation.a).E+-
E+-
4

7E+-
E+-

1

$8,268.E+- E+- TheE+- lackE+- ofE+- anyE+- meaningfulE+- explanationE+- inE+- theE+- CommissionerasE+- finalE+-

2

writtenE+- decisionE+- convincesE+- meE+- thatE+- theE+- CommissionerE+- wasE+- dolingE+- outE+- hisE+- ownE+-

3

brandE+- ofE+- industrialE+- justice.E+- E+- Cf.E+- BurnsE+- IntElE+- Sec.E+- Servs.,E+- Inc.E+- v.E+- IntElE+- Union,E+- UnitedE+-

4

PlantE+-GuardE+-WorkersE+-ofE+-Am.E+-(UPGWA)E+-&E+-ItsE+-LocalE+-537,E+-47E+-F.3dE+-14,E+-17E+-(2dE+-Cir.E+-1995)E+-

5

(a[I]fE+- aE+- groundE+- forE+- theE+- arbitratorasE+- decisionE+- canE+- beE+- inferredE+- fromE+-theE+- factsE+- ofE+- theE+-

6

case,E+-theE+-awardE+-shouldE+-beE+-confirmed.aE+-(quotingE+-SobelE+-v.E+-Hertz,E+-WarnerE+-&E+-Co.,E+-469E+-

7

F.2dE+-1211,E+-1216E+-(2dE+-Cir.E+-1972))E+-(emphasisE+-added).E+-E+-InE+-thisE+-regard,E+-itE+-bearsE+-notingE+-

8

thatE+-theE+-ScheduleE+-ofE+-FinesE+-providesE+-thatE+-aE+-playerE+-caughtE+-violatingE+-theE+-prohibitionE+-

9

onE+-stickumE+-aE+-secondE+-timeE+-isE+-toE+-beE+-finedE+-$16,537.E+-E+-Thus,E+-evenE+-whereE+-aggravatingE+-

10

circumstancesE+- exist,E+- theE+- ScheduleE+- ofE+- FinesE+- doesE+- notE+- provideE+- forE+- theE+- extremeE+-

11

increaseE+-inE+-penaltyE+-thatE+-theE+-CommissionerE+-foundE+-appropriateE+-here.7E+-

12

InE+-sum,E+-theE+-CommissionerasE+-failureE+-toE+-discussE+-theE+-penaltyE+-forE+-violationsE+-ofE+-

13

theE+-prohibitionE+-onE+-stickum,E+-theE+-CommissionerasE+-strainedE+-relianceE+-onE+-theE+-penaltyE+-

14

forE+- violationsE+- ofE+- theE+- LeagueasE+- steroidE+- policy,E+- andE+- theE+- CommissionerasE+- shiftingE+-

15

rationaleE+-forE+-BradyasE+-discipline,E+-together,E+-leaveE+-meE+-withE+-theE+-firmE+-convictionE+-thatE+-

16

hisE+-decisionE+-inE+-theE+-arbitrationE+-appealE+-wasE+-basedE+-notE+-onE+-hisE+-interpretationE+-ofE+-theE+-

17

CBA,E+-butE+-onE+-ahisE+-ownE+-brandE+-ofE+-industrialE+-justice.aE+-E+-Enter.E+-WheelE+-&E+-CarE+-Corp.,E+-363E+-

18

U.S.E+-atE+-597.E+-
IV.

19

E+-

20

TheE+-CommissionerasE+-authorityE+-is,E+-asE+-theE+-majorityE+-emphasizes,E+-broad.E+-E+-ButE+-itE+-

21

isE+-notE+-limitless,E+-andE+-itsE+-boundariesE+-areE+-definedE+-byE+-theE+-CBA.E+-E+-Here,E+-theE+-CBAE+-grantsE+-

22

theE+- CommissionerE+- inE+- hisE+- capacityE+- asE+- arbitratorE+- onlyE+- theE+- authorityE+- toE+- decideE+-

E+-TheE+-majorityE+-againE+-givesE+-meE+-tooE+-muchE+-creditE+-inE+-statingE+-thatE+-theE+-AssociationE+-didE+-notE+-raiseE+-thisE+-argument.E+-E+-
IE+-readE+-theE+-AssociationasE+-briefE+-toE+-makeE+-twoE+-argumentsE+-withE+-respectE+-toE+-alternativeE+-penalties.E+-E+-TheE+-firstE+-isE+-thatE+-
theE+- PlayerE+- Policies,E+- andE+- inE+- particularE+- theE+- aOtherE+- Uniform/EquipmentE+- ViolationsaE+- provision,E+- governedE+-
BradyasE+-misconductE+-hereE+-andE+-necessitatesE+-thatE+-heE+-receiveE+-noE+-moreE+-thanE+-aE+-fine.E+-E+-IE+-agreeE+-withE+-theE+-majorityE+-
thatE+- thisE+- hasE+- noE+- merit.E+- E+- TheE+- second,E+- however,E+- isE+- thatE+- theE+- CommissionerasE+- failureE+- toE+- discussE+- certainE+-
probativeE+- termsainE+- particular,E+- theE+- aOtherE+- Uniform/EquipmentE+- ViolationsaE+- provisionE+- andE+- theE+- stickumE+-
prohibitionE+-(obviously,E+-IE+-findE+-onlyE+-theE+-latterE+-actuallyE+-probative)areflectsE+-thatE+-theE+-CommissionerE+-wasE+-notE+-
actuallyE+-construingE+-theE+-CBA,E+-theE+-onlyE+-limitationE+-imposedE+-onE+-anE+-arbitratorE+-actingE+-withinE+-theE+-scopeE+-ofE+-hisE+-
authority.E+-E+-And,E+-asE+-theE+-majorityE+-acknowledges,E+-inE+-supportE+-ofE+-thatE+-argument,E+-theE+-AssociationE+-contendsE+-thatE+-
theE+- CommissionerasE+- aCBAE+- defianceE+- isE+- onlyE+- underscoredE+- byE+- hisE+- relianceE+- onE+- theE+- SteroidE+- Policy.aE+- E+- Br.E+- forE+-
AppelleesE+-NatalE+-FootballE+-LeagueE+-PlayersE+-AssanE+-andE+-TomE+-BradyE+-atE+-45.E+-E+-E+-
7

8E+-
E+-

1

aappeals,aE+- thatE+- is,E+- whetherE+- theE+- initialE+- disciplinaryE+- decisionE+- wasE+- erroneous.E+- E+- TheE+-

2

CommissionerE+- exceededE+- thatE+- limitedE+- authorityE+- whenE+- heE+- decidedE+- insteadE+- thatE+-

3

BradyE+- couldE+- beE+- suspendedE+- forE+- fourE+- gamesE+- basedE+- onE+- misconductE+- foundE+- forE+- theE+-

4

firstE+- timeE+- inE+- theE+- CommissionerasE+- decision.E+- E+- ThisE+- breachE+- ofE+- theE+- limitsE+- onE+- theE+-

5

CommissionerasE+- authorityE+- isE+- exacerbatedE+- byE+- theE+- unprecedentedE+- andE+- virtuallyE+-

6

unexplainedE+- natureE+- ofE+- theE+- penaltyE+- imposed.E+- E+- ConfirmingE+- theE+- arbitralE+- awardE+-

7

underE+- suchE+- circumstancesE+- neitherE+- enforcesE+- theE+- intentE+- ofE+- theE+- partiesE+- norE+- furthersE+-

8

theE+-afederalE+-policyE+-thatE+-federalE+-courtsE+-shouldE+-enforceE+-[arbitration]E+-agreementsE+-.E+-.E+-.E+-

9

andE+-thatE+-industrialE+-peaceE+-canE+-beE+-bestE+-obtainedE+-onlyE+-inE+-thatE+-way.aE+-E+-TextileE+-WorkersE+-

10

UnionE+-ofE+-Am.E+-v.E+-LincolnE+-MillsE+-ofE+-Ala.,E+-353E+-U.S.E+-448,E+-455E+-(1957).E+-

11

IE+-endE+-whereE+-IE+-began.E+-E+-TheE+-ArticleE+-46E+-appealsE+-processE+-isE+-designedE+-toE+-provideE+-

12

aE+- checkE+- againstE+- theE+- CommissionerasE+- otherwiseE+- unfetteredE+- authorityE+- toE+- imposeE+-

13

disciplineE+- forE+- aconductE+- detrimental.aE+- E+- ButE+- theE+- CommissionerasE+- murkyE+-

14

explanationE+-ofE+-BradyasE+-disciplineE+-undercutsE+-theE+-protectionsE+-forE+-whichE+-theE+-NFLPAE+-

15

bargainedE+-onE+-Bradyas,E+-andE+-othersa,E+-behalf.E+-E+-ItE+-isE+-ironicE+-thatE+-aE+-processE+-designedE+-toE+-

16

ensureE+-fairnessE+-toE+-allE+-playersE+-hasE+-beenE+-usedE+-unfairlyE+-againstE+-oneE+-player.E+-
IE+-respectfullyE+-dissent.E+-

17

9E+-
E+-