Percentage of whites, blacks and Hispanics performing at or above a proficient level of reading: FOURTH-GRADERS EIGHTH-GRADERS FOURTH-GRADERS EIGHTH-GRADERS FOURTH-GRADERS EIGHTH-GRADERS FOURTH-GRADERS EIGHTH-GRADERS Comparison of average reading scores between low-income stu-dents — those eligible for free or reduced- price meals — and non-eligible stu-dents.* Since 2003, the score gap between low-income students and all other students has increased 108 percent, from 24 points to 50 points. The score gap is less among eighth- graders than fourth-graders, but the trend is similar. The gap has widened by nearly 90 percent since 2003. 271Basic 241Below basic 2003 2013 0 180 200 220 240 260 500 Lowincome Comparison of average reading scores of whites, blacks and His-panics in D.C. public schools: Most of the progress among white, black and Hispanic fourth-graders occurred before the 2007 education reforms. Hispanic students’ test scores improved 10 percent from 2003 to 2007, but only 1 percent from 2007 to 2013. Overall, both black and Hispanic eighth- graders have improved by 3 percent since 2003. However, test scores for Hispanics have slightly declined since 2007 (–0.4%). Black student made most of their progress after the reforms (+2%). 259 208 197 2003 2013 0 180 200 220 240 260 280 500 Maximum scale score White Hispanic Black How reading test scores of students in the District’s public schools com- pare with the average scores of 18 U.S. cities or urban districts: Since 2003, the District’s test scores have improved more than those of other large cities, rising by nearly 10 percent compared with 4 percent. Average test scores for large cities and the District have improved by 3 percent since 2003. Most of the increase for both has occurred since 2007. 248 258 2003 2013 0 180 200 220 240 260 280 D.C. 212 206 D.C. Large cities 2003 2013 0 180 200 220 240 260 500 Maximum scale score NOTE: Large city average includes District of Columbia Public Schools. ’03 ’05 ’07 ’09 ’11 ’13 5% 85% 9% 10% 73% 14% Among fourth-graders Among eighth-graders White Black Hispanic Percentage break-down of test partici-pation, by student’s race or ethnicity: ’03 ’05 ’07 ’09 ’11 ’13 3% 88% 8% 6% 79% 13% 297 248 243 2003 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2013 0 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 Test scores for whites not available for 2003, 2007 and 2009 2003 2013 50% 75% 25% 0 73% 20% 12% 2003 2013 50% 75% 25% 0 77% 23% 15% *The method for identifying low-income students in the District changed between 2011 and 2013, making it difficult to compare low-income students’ 2013 scores to those in prior years. 238 or higher 281 or higher PROFICIENT PROFICIENT BELOW BASIC BELOW BASIC BELOW BASIC Less than 243 BELOW BASIC Less than 208 NOTE: A student reading at a proficient level has mastered grade-level reading skills. The NAEP ranges for proficient and below-basic levels are for 2013. All three groups improvedthe most pre-2007 reform PROFICIENT PROFICIENT 2003 2013 245 Proficient 195 Below basic Otherstudents Low income students 0 180 200 220 240 260 500 Maximum scale score Otherstudents Gap Large cities “Score gap” When a group had the most progress: Before or after reform How D.C. students from both traditional and charter schools fared on the NAEP reading test:

SOURCE: National Center for Education Statistics. GRAPHIC: Todd Lindeman - The Washington Post. Published March 13, 2014.