1 4 2 3 Ebola virus Monoclonal antibodies Virus enters host cell Virus proteins release viral genome into cell New virus “buds” from cell RNA Enzymes help replicate virus Host cell C e l l m e m b r a n e 1 U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, 2 Phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers, 3 Small particle immunopotentiators, 4 University of Washington * Developed to target other viruses, such as herpes, influenza, adenovirus and West Nile virus 1 2 3 4 5 INVESTIGATORSMapp PHACUSAMRIID1TekmiraChimerix FujifilmBiocrystInhibikaseSareptaDrexel Unither NovartisGale Laboratory4 Defyrus USAMRIID/Zalicus DRUGSZMapp ZMAbIgG EbolaTKM-EbolaBrincidofovir* Favipiravir*BCX4430GleevecPMOs2Glucosidase inhibitors Glycosidase inhibitorSMIPs3IRF-3 pathway activatorsIFN alpha Ad5 vectorAll drugs PATIENTS SPAIN: Miguel Pajares, priest (died) GEORGIA: Nancy Writebol, nurse; Kent Brantly, doctor NEBRASKA: Richard Sacra, doctorTEXAS: Thomas Eric Duncan (died) NEBRASKA: Ashoka Mukpo, journalist FRANCE: A volunteer nurse STRATEGIES Targets the virus before it enters the cell • A cocktail of three monoclonal antibodies, which target the virus (Currently unavailable) • An equal mixture of three antibodies, which attack the virus envelope • Y-shaped antibodies designed to interfere with the Ebola virus Interferes with viral reproduction • Degrades viral RNA, preventing Ebola from replicating • Disrupts enzymes that the virus uses to make copies of itself • Disrupts enzymes that the virus uses to make copies of itself • Disrupts enzymes that the virus uses to make copies of itself • An anti-cancer drug that, in the laboratory, inhibits viral replication • Molecules that bind to viral RNA, blocking gene function • Disrupt the formation of viral proteins in an infected cell Prevents the virus from exiting host cells • Blocks the ability of the virus to leave the host cell Bolsters human cells • Drugs that enhance the human immune response • Stimulate proteins that regulate interferons, which boost the antiviral defenses in host cells • Use of a modified adenovirus to deliver interferon-producing genes to host cells Tests existing drugs approved for other purposes • Screening all FDA-approved drugs for possible activity on filoviruses Brantly has donated to both Sacra and Mukpo a unit of blood, or convalescent serum, which probably contains antibodies that help check the virus.

SOURCE: Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, NIH, Science Translational Medicine, Viruses, Antiviral Research, Tekmira, Chimerix, Biocryst, staff reports.