NEANDERTHALS MODERN HUMAN NEANDERTHAL Flat, slopingcranium Long clavicle Wide rib cage Large elbow Short forearm Wide fingertips Wide hips Thick, curvedfemur Big patella Short, flat, thick tibia Large ankles Wide toes EUROPE AFRICA ASIA Known rangeof Neanderthals South Africa West Africa New Guinea East Asia Extinction30,000 years ago 400,000years ago Genetic testing found Neanderthal genes in people from these regions Interbreeding MODERNHUMANS Common ancestor Western Europe As much as 4 percent of the Eurasian human genome comes from Neanderthals, who probably first interbred with modern humans in the Middle East about 65,000 years ago. Extinct, but still with us Modern humans crossed into Eurasia about 65,000 years ago. The chunky relative Compared with modern humans, Neanderthals were short and stocky, and had larger brains.

SOURCE: Nature, Science, UCLA, Palomar College, Max Planck Society, Encyclopedia Britannica. GRAPHIC: Patterson Clark - The Washington Post. Published Jan. 19, 2015.