WESTANTARCTICA EASTANTARCTICA SanFrancisco Rise Amundsen Sea Embayment RossIceShelf 5 4 3 2 1 0 RonneIceShelf Areas losing 10 to 23 feet of ground ice per year Warming sea beds Ice shelves ’92 ’95 ’00 ’05 ’10 ’14 Adding to sea-level rise Since 1992, glaciers running into the Amundsen Sea Embayment have lost enough ice to raise global sea levels by almost five millimeters. Stable glacier A glacier flows slowly as cool seas maintain a buoyant ice shelf front, which holds back the glacier. Accelerated glacier Warming ocean currents undercut the ice shelf front, causing the glacier to rapidly calve icebergs, which reduces ice shelf support and accelerates the flow of the glacier. Rising seas As the Earth’s ice melts, the water runs into oceans, raising sea levels. CONTRIBUTION TO SEA LEVELIN MILLIMETERS COMBINED DATA FROM FOURSEPARATE NASA INSTRUMENTSMEASURING LOST ICE MASS Glacier Flow Accelerating flow Land Continental shelf Ice shelf Ocean Icebergs As the glacier speeds into the ocean, it loses mass and the altitude of its surface drops, which is readily measured by satellites. 9.1 2.4 3.2 2.8 6.6 0.8 1.9 -13.1 2.0 Galveston,Tex. LosAngeles Seattle Juneau, Alaska Drops in sea level occur when local glaciers vanish, relieving the land of tremendous weight. The ground rebounds, rising up and away from the sea. MiamiBeach Washington,D.C. Boston Grand Isle, La. UNITED STATES CANADA Yearly changes in sea level Fall IN MILLIMETERS

SOURCE: Science, NOAA, NASA, Nature, AntarcticGlaciers.org.